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This is my Real Life Story: Troubled Galaxy Destroyed Dreams. It is hightime that I should share my life with you all. So that something may be done to save this Galaxy. Please write to: bangasanskriti.sahityasammilani@gmail.comThis Blog is all about Black Untouchables,Indigenous, Aboriginal People worldwide, Refugees, Persecuted nationalities, Minorities and golbal RESISTANCE.

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    आमिर ने जो कहा वह सच यहाँ है । 
    जन विजय

    #ম্লেচ্ছ ব্যাটা #PK# AAmir Khan# পাদিও না সহিষ্ণুতার অখন্ড স্বর্গে,বিশুদ্ধ পন্জিকার নির্ঘন্ট লঙ্ঘিবে কোন হালার পো হালা!


    वेदप्रताप वैदिक की क़लम सेे
    हमारे टीवी चैनलों और अखबारों के अच्छे दिन लौट आए हैं। प्रधानमंत्री नरेंद्र मोदी के भाषणों से ऊबे हुए हमारे चैनलों को आमिर खान का भुर्ता बनाने मे मज़ा आ रहा है। जो भी लोग आमिर के पक्ष और विपक्ष में गोले दागे जा रहे हैं, उनमें से शायद ही किसी ने आमिर का पूरा इंटरव्यू देखा या सुना है। सारा हंगामा सिर्फ एक वाक्य के चारों तरफ घूम रहा है। वह वाक्य है, 'किरन ने मुझसे कहा कि हम लोग भारत के बाहर क्यों न रहें? मुझे बच्चे का डर है।'
    यह वाक्य मैंने भी सुना और मुझे भी लगा कि आमिर ने यह क्या बोल दिया? मियां-बीवी की निजी बातचीत को उन्होंने सार्वजनिक क्यों किया? यह शायद उनके स्वभाव का सीधापन है या शायद उन्हें अंदाज नहीं था कि इस वाक्य को खबरची इस तरह ले उड़ेंगे। जाहिर है कि यह बात आमिर ने नहीं कही। यह उनकी पत्नी ने कही है। वे मुसलमान नहीं है। वे किरन राव हैं। हिंदू हैं। जब आमिर का इंटरव्यू मैंने देखा तो उसके दो वाक्य सुनकर मैं दंग रह गया। वे वाक्य चैनल वालों ने दबा दिए। वे उन्हें इतने धीरे से सुना रहे थे कि उनका कोई मतलब ही नहीं निकलता था लेकिन एक चैनल ने उन्हें सुनवा ही दिया।
    अपनी पत्नी किरन की बात कहने के बाद आमिर ने कहा कि 'तुम इतनी भयंकर बात क्यों कह रही हो?'आमिर की इस प्रतिक्रिया पर कोई कुछ बोल ही नहीं रहा है? इसीलिए मुझे लगता है कि आमिर को लेकर जो बहस चल रही है, वह कोरी हवाई लट्ठबाजी है। उसमें तथ्यों और तर्कों का अभाव है। आमिर खान का पूरा इंटरव्यू देखकर ऐसा लगता है कि जो लोग उनके पीछे पड़े हुए हैं वे न तो उनके साथ न्याय कर रहे हैं और न ही पत्रकारिता के साथ।
    इसका मतलब यह नहीं कि मैं कुछ कलाकारों और साहित्यकारों की इस बात से सहमत हूं कि भारत में असहिष्णुता का माहौल बढ़ गया है। यह उनका भ्रम है। वे मीडिया के प्रचार में फिसल गए हैं। उनके रवैए में बौद्धिकता का अभाव है। वे तर्कशील नहीं हैं। उन्होंने नाटक करते-करते सच्चाई को भी नौटंकी में बदल दिया है। एक-दो दुर्घटनाओं की वजह से देश को बदनाम करना अनुचित है। हमारे देश में इतने बड़े-बड़े सांप्रदायिक नरसंहार हुए हैं। उस समय इन कलाकारों और साहित्यकारों को क्या हुआ था?
    भेड़चाल में आंख मींच कर चलने वाले इन कलाकारों से मेरा कहना है कि यदि आपको मोदी का विरोध करना है तो आप डटकर क्यों नहीं करते? खुलकर क्यों नहीं करते? भारत में पूरी छूट है। सहिष्णुता है। यदि ऐसा नहीं होता तो इतने हिंदू साहित्यकार और कलाकार अपने सम्मान क्यों लौटाते? मोदी को चाहिए था कि वे उन हत्याओं की तत्काल कड़ी निंदा करते और अपने अनर्गल प्रलाप करने वाले साथियों को फटकारते लेकिन मोदी हैं कि वे भी इन नौटंकियों का मजा ले रहे हैं। अपना देश ही नौटंकीमय होता जा रहा है।
    Comments
    Ritu Joshi
    Ritu Joshi aamir budhiman h..wo jnte h ki unohne kya kha.. iske picche v rajnitit hSee Translation
    Like · Reply · 18 hrs
    Shailesh Bhadani Bhadani
    Shailesh Bhadani Bhadani आपका कहना बिल्कुल सही है ।मिडीया तोड़ मरोकर पेश कर रहा है ।
    Like · Reply · 18 hrs
    Sharad Alok
    Sharad Alok आपका कहना बिल्कुल सही है , सारा हंगामा सिर्फ एक वाक्य के चारों तरफ घूम रहा है।
    Like · Reply · 17 hrs
    Naresh Saxena
    Naresh Saxena आमिरखान की दबी हुई बात को उभारने के लिये धन्यवाद।लेकिन मोदी जी की एक खास मुद्दे पर चुप्पी उनके लिए कितनी खतरनाक हो चुकी है यह वे जान चुके होंगे।
    Like · Reply · 17 hrs
    Vijay Wate
    Vijay Wate कोई भी कहीं से कोई डमरू बजा देता है और उस पर समर्थन या विरोध खेला जाता है। न तो आमिर का समर्थन करने वाले सिरियस न विरोध करने वाले,आमिर की फिल्मे न देखने का आव्हान करने वाले उसकी फिल्मे जरुर देखेंगे। वैसे ये बात का बतंगड़ ही है। फ़ालतू टाइम पास।
    Like · Reply · 17 hrs
    Vijay Kaushal
    Vijay Kaushal आमिर के मन में खोट है, इतना हंगामा हो रहा है क्यों नही किरन के लहंगे की ओट से बाहर निकल कर सच बयां क्यों नही कर रहा है
    Like · Reply · 17 hrs
    Sanjay Rai
    Sanjay Rai में आपको 1990 मे रेडियो मास्को पर सुनता था । अभी कुछ सही आप लिखे हैं ।
    Like · Reply · 16 hrs
    Dr-Anil Kumar Jain
    Dr-Anil Kumar Jain Good analysis
    Like · Reply · 16 hrs
    Rahul Mishra
    Rahul Mishra 90 ke dashak ke Laloo ji ( aaj ke Laloo ji ke baare mein samay bataiga) aur aaj ke Modi ji mein koi fark nazar nahi aata, wo bhi dishahin thae aur ye bhi.See Translation
    Like · Reply · 15 hrs
    Ashraf Anshri
    Like · Reply · 12 hrs
    Rakesh Bhartiya
    Rakesh Bhartiya क्या आमिर को नहीं मालूम था कि पत्नी के नाम पर जो बात वो कह रहे हैं उस पर क्या प्रतिक्रिया होगी ?कोई भी व्यक्ति ,सही होने पर भी अपनी पत्नी को विवादस्पद स्थिति से दूर ही रखता। आमिर खान होशियार अदाकार हैं । वो जो बात खुद कहना चाहते हें वो अपनी पत्नि को...See More
    Like · Reply · 3 · 12 hrs
    Narendra Pundrik
    Narendra Pundrik yh un khbrchiyo ka kmal hai jo kuchh din phle unnav ke aek ganv me sona khdwa rhe theSee Translation
    Like · Reply · 11 hrs
    Pradeep Singh Panwar
    Pradeep Singh Panwar संविधानिक लचीलेपन का मिडिया.व तथाकथित कलाकार लोग फायदा उठा रहे है.... आज वास्तव मेआपातकाल की जरूरत को महसूस किया जा सकता है
    Like · Reply · 3 hrs
    Rahul Khaira
    Rahul Khaira Amir bachhe nahi hai !See Translation
    Like · Reply · 2 hrs

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  • 11/25/15--20:25: देश के जो हलात हैं, उन्हें देखते हुए इस देश का कोई भी सजग नागरिक नहीं चाहेगा कि विदेश में रह रहे उसके बच्चे देश में वापस आयें. कारण : यहाँ हवा ही नहीं मानसिकता भी प्रदूषित हो गयी है. हर चीज में मिलावट. न दूध शुद्ध है न फल. हरी सब्जी भी घातक हो चुकी है. चिकित्सा मँहगी ही नहीं भरोसे की भी नहीं रही है. पुलिस नेताओं की नजर देख कर काम करती है. छोटे से छोटे पद के .लिए भी लाखों रुपये घूस देने की जरूरत पड़ने लगी है. शिक्षा अभिभावाकों की लूटने का धन्धा बन चुकी है. योग्यता या अर्हता शब्द असंवैधानिक हो गये हैं जाति के नाम पर हर जाति का सम्पन्न वर्ग मौज कर रहा है. दलित, अगड़े, पिछड़े सब अपने हाल पर हैं. अस्पताल मुर्दे को भी आइ.सी.यू. में रख कर उसके परिवारी जनों को लूटने से बाज नहीं आ रहे हैं. बच्चे देश से बाहर हैं पर उन्हें हर चीज शुद्ध मिल रही है. पुलिस सजग हैं शिक्षा बच्चों का दम नहीं घोट रही है. चिकित्सा महँगी भले ही हो उसमें लूट का रंचमात्र नहीं है. चिकित्सक रोग देखते हैं रोगी की जेब नहीं------ फिर मेरे दोस्त! हम बातें कितनी ही क्यों न बना लें, स्वार्थ से बाहर दुनिया नहीं है. यह मैं नहीं कह रहा
  • देश के जो हलात हैं, उन्हें देखते हुए इस देश का कोई भी सजग नागरिक नहीं चाहेगा कि विदेश में रह रहे उसके बच्चे देश में वापस आयें. कारण : यहाँ हवा ही नहीं मानसिकता भी प्रदूषित हो गयी है. हर चीज में मिलावट. न दूध शुद्ध है न फल. हरी सब्जी भी घातक हो चुकी है. चिकित्सा मँहगी ही नहीं भरोसे की भी नहीं रही है. पुलिस नेताओं की नजर देख कर काम करती है. छोटे से छोटे पद के .लिए भी लाखों रुपये घूस देने की जरूरत पड़ने लगी है. शिक्षा अभिभावाकों की लूटने का धन्धा बन चुकी है. योग्यता या अर्हता शब्द असंवैधानिक हो गये हैं जाति के नाम पर हर जाति का सम्पन्न वर्ग मौज कर रहा है. दलित, अगड़े, पिछड़े सब अपने हाल पर हैं. अस्पताल मुर्दे को भी आइ.सी.यू. में रख कर उसके परिवारी जनों को लूटने से बाज नहीं आ रहे हैं.
    बच्चे देश से बाहर हैं पर उन्हें हर चीज शुद्ध मिल रही है. पुलिस सजग हैं शिक्षा बच्चों का दम नहीं घोट रही है. चिकित्सा महँगी भले ही हो उसमें लूट का रंचमात्र नहीं है. चिकित्सक रोग देखते हैं रोगी की जेब नहीं------
    फिर मेरे दोस्त! हम बातें कितनी ही क्यों न बना लें, स्वार्थ से बाहर दुनिया नहीं है. यह मैं नहीं कह रहा हूँ सैकड़ों साल पहले ऋषि याज्ञवल्क्य कह गये हैं आत्मनस्तु कामाय वै सर्वं प्रियं भवति. ( संसार में सब कुछ अपने हित के लिए ही प्रिय होता है.) परिवार इस लिए प्रिय होता है कि वह हमारे हित के लिए काम करता है. मकान इस लिए प्रिय होता है कि वह हमें सुरक्षा और आराम देता है. पर यदि परिवार ही समस्या बन जाय या मकान ही असुरक्षित हो तो? वही बात देश के बारे में भी है. और इसके लिए हमारी मातृभूमि जिम्मेदार नहीं है हमारा नेतृत्व जिम्मेदार है.

    #ম্লেচ্ছ ব্যাটা #PK# AAmir Khan# পাদিও না সহিষ্ণুতার অখন্ড স্বর্গে,বিশুদ্ধ পন্জিকার নির্ঘন্ট লঙ্ঘিবে কোন হালার পো হালা!


    --
    Pl see my blogs;


    Feel free -- and I request you -- to forward this newsletter to your lists and friends!

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  • 11/25/15--20:42: यदि आमिरखान के द्वारा बनायी गयी फिल्मों और धारावाहिकों का मूल्यांकन किया जाय तो शायद वर्तमान में उनसे बड़ा देशभक्त रचनाकार दूसरा नहीं है. यदि वह इस वह देश के वर्तमान महौल पर चिन्ता व्यक्त करते हैं, तो उसे गम्भीरता से लेते हुए हमारे तथाकथित देशभक्तों को आत्म आत्म निरीक्षण की ओर उन्मुख होना चाहिए था पर हालात ऐसे हो गये हैं कि यदि चिकित्सक भी यदि किसी रोगी से कहे कि तुम्हें अमुक बीमारी का खतरा है तो रोगी और उसके रिस्तेदार चिकित्सक का हुलिया बिगाड़ने पर तुल जायें.
  • कल गुरु पर्व मनाया वैश्विक मानवता ने।हम भाग्यशाली हैं कि हमारे गुरुजी हमसे कहीं ज्यादा सक्रिय है।आमीर खान प्रकरण पर हमारे गुरुजी के विचार पढ़कर सोचें के हम कितना जायज बोल लिख रहे हैं।क्योंकि हम हमेशा उनक ही दिखाये मार्ग पर चलते हैं।
    पलाश विश्वास

    TaraChandra Tripathi
    यह भारतीय इतिहास की प्रवृत्ति है कि एक अवधि के बाद देश में ऐसी प्रवृत्तियाँ उभरने लगती हैं कि यह देश बिखरने लगता है. और यह कालावधि औसतन ९० साल है.( स्वाधीन भारत सत्तर साल का होने जा रहा है) यह अवश्य है कि देश के सौभाग्य से जब कभी उसे सजग और सर्वग्राही नेतृत्व मिला है, यह अवधि बढ़ी भी है. संक्रान्ति के ऐसे मोड़ पर हमारी राजनीति जो खतरनाक मोड़ ले रही है, वह गम्भीर चिन्ता का विषय है. वैचारिक स्वतन्त्रता पर अघोषित प्रतिबन्ध लगता जा रहा है. यदि राज्य ने यह प्रतिबन्ध लगाया होता तो न्यायालय से गुहार लगायी जा सकती थी. पर सम्प्रदायों के ठेकेदारों द्वारा लगाया गया यह प्रतिबन्ध कब किसकी जान ले ले, कहा नहीं जा सक्ता.
    राष्ट्रीय पुरस्कार लौटाने वाले रचनाकार हों, या देश में साम्प्रदायिक कठमुल्लाओं के द्वारा देश के माहौल को बिगाड़ने वाले बयान और व्यवहार के बारे में चिन्ता व्यक्त करने वाले लोग, आज खतरे की जद में आ चुके हैं. यदि आमिरखान के द्वारा बनायी गयी फिल्मों और धारावाहिकों का मूल्यांकन किया जाय तो शायद वर्तमान में उनसे बड़ा देशभक्त रचनाकार दूसरा नहीं है. यदि वह इस वह देश के वर्तमान महौल पर चिन्ता व्यक्त करते हैं, तो उसे गम्भीरता से लेते हुए हमारे तथाकथित देशभक्तों को आत्म आत्म निरीक्षण की ओर उन्मुख होना चाहिए था पर हालात ऐसे हो गये हैं कि यदि चिकित्सक भी यदि किसी रोगी से कहे कि तुम्हें अमुक बीमारी का खतरा है तो रोगी और उसके रिस्तेदार चिकित्सक का हुलिया बिगाड़ने पर तुल जायें. 
    संक्रान्ति के ऐसे मोड़ पर देश को जितने गम्भीर और उदारमना नेतृत्व की अपेक्षा थी, वह उसे नहीं मिल पा रहा है. कम से कम बिहार के चुनावों में लालू के स्तर पर उतर कर प्रधानमंत्री नरेन्द्र मोदी ने उनकी नेतृत्व क्षमता पर एक प्रश्नचिह्न लगा दिया है. परिणामत: बिहार में भा.जपा ही नहीं हारी है. देश का भविष्य भी खतरे में पड़ गया है. 
    कारण बिहार में जातिवाद की विजय हुई है. उसकी देखा- देखी उत्तर प्रदेश में कन्नौजाधिपति महाराज मुलायम सिंह यादव ने भी अपनी सरकार की प्रशासनिक असफलताओं को देखते हुए जातिवाद का झंडा खड़ा कर दिया है. यदि यही रुझान बढ़्ता गया तो देश का क्या होगा?

    #ম্লেচ্ছ ব্যাটা #PK# AAmir Khan# পাদিও না সহিষ্ণুতার অখন্ড স্বর্গে,বিশুদ্ধ পন্জিকার নির্ঘন্ট লঙ্ঘিবে কোন হালার পো হালা!


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    Shrawan Kumar Paswan to SCHEDULED CASTE FOR SOCIAL CHANGE

    संविधान दिवस पर महामानव बाबा साहब डॉ आंबेडकर को शत-शत नमन !
    बाबा साहब लिखित संविधान आज के ही दिन 26 नबम्बर 1949 को लागू किया गया था 
    ,संविधान ने हमे जागरूक और शसक्त बनाया इसका श्रेय बाबा साहब को जाता है 
    भारत का संविधान विश्व के किसी भी गणतांत्रिक देश का सबसे लंबा लिखित संविधान है। 465 अनुच्छेद, तथा 12 अनुसूचियां हैं और ये 22 भागों में विभाजित है।


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    Our beloved Film maker,Artist Kamal Hasan,a Tamil Brahamin spoke thus as reported by mainstream media,India Today.I wonder what reaction to foolow!Would Kamal Hassan get the Fatwa to move out as it would resolve the problem of Population growth as some Mahanta suggested in reference to Aami Khan`s concern!

    Palash Biswas

    If this happens again, I will seriously think of leaving India, says Kamal Haasan on Vishwaroopam controversy

    Haasan said that he was moved when 'true Muslims came to him for forgiveness' for the whole controversy which has stopped the release of his film in his own state.

    Kamal Haasan
    Actor Kamal Haasan said that he doesn't regret talking about leaving India during the Vishwaroopam controversy. "If this happens again, I will seriously think of leaving  India."said the actor who was in Mumbai for his film's promotion and release.

    The actor said, "I was not threatening, I am not saying sorry for what I said, I was angry, I was hurt, I still am hurt." The actor added that if in future such a thing happened then he would think of leaving the country.

    He however said that he had no grudge against his 'Muslim brothers' most of whom knew that he was not communal.

    Haasan said that he was moved when 'true Muslims came to him for forgiveness' for the whole controversy which has stopped the release of his film in his own state.

    The actor said that he meant no harm to the Muslim community and said that in the film he has shown Indian Muslims as good Muslims and those Muslims who are terrorists are from other countries. "As far as Muslim friends (are concerned) in all this trial... I was moved when they asked my forgiveness…they are the true Muslims, that's the true spirit of  India. That India, however, doesn't have a voice. You (media) would be that instrument to give them a voice," said Kamal talking about how moderate Muslims came and apologized to him on the controversy.

    On the controversial scenes in the film, the actor said, " I mean no harm. When you see the film it is not about Indian Muslims, the Indian Muslims shown in the film are good, the terrorists who are shown in the film are bad Muslims (from other countries). Why would you want a terrorist to be known as a good Muslim," the actor asked those criticizing the film.

    He said that such kind of a thinking will not take the country anywhere. " I have a request to my Hindu, Muslims, Sikh and other brothers, we have to do a lot more work to take India forward, this kind of (attitude) will not take us anywhere."said the actor.

    He thanked and expressed 'gratitude' to Tamil Nadu chief minister J Jayalalithaa for her initiative to end the controversy and completely denied that he had any fight going on with her.

    He also requested the TN government to release any of those arrested for the violence outside cinema halls while protesting against his film, saying, "They are my brothers, they were led by rabble rousers... if they see the film they would know that I really love them."

    The actor said that he had suffered a Rs 30 crore to Rs 60 crore loss due to the film's release being delayed. "I don't know what I have done to deserve this. My house is still mortgaged and I have been told to believe the film's release as a lottery," said Kamal.

    He maintained that the whole controversy was related to 'politics' and had 'nothing to do with religion'.

    #ম্লেচ্ছ ব্যাটা #PK# AAmir Khan# পাদিও না সহিষ্ণুতার অখন্ড স্বর্গে,বিশুদ্ধ পন্জিকার নির্ঘন্ট লঙ্ঘিবে কোন হালার পো হালা!


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    पिछले 14 सालों में 61 हज़ार रईस छोड़ गए हैं देश
    हर चौथा भारतीय अरबपति देश छोड़ने को तैयार है: 
    -----------------------------------------------------

    हमारे वरिष्ठ साथी गोपाल राठी ने आज शुबोसुबो यह अपने वाल पर टांगा है

    सुपर स्टार आमिर खान की पत्नी किरण राव द्वारा देश छोड़कर जाने की इच्छा जताने के बीच यह जानना रोचक होगा कि अमीर तेजी से देश छोड़कर विदेश में बसते जा रहे हैं। एक चौंकाने वाली रिपोर्ट आई है कि पिछले 14 सालों में 61 हजार अमीर देश छोड़कर दूसरे देश में बस गए हैं।

    मोटे तौर पर इसकी तीन वजहें बताई जा रही हैं
    1-भारत में ज्यादा टैक्स दर होना
    2-सुरक्षा को लेकर चिंता
    3-बच्चों के लिए बेहतर शिक्षा का मौका।

    ऐसे समय जबकि केंद्र सरकार एनआरआई को देश में निवेश के लिए प्रोत्साहित करने में लगी है। देश में तेजी से अमीरों की संख्या तेजी से बढ़ रही है। बड़े मॉल, लग्जरी होटल और विलासिता के केंद्र विकसित होते जा रहे हैं। ऐसे में ये आंकड़े वाकई चौंकाने वाले हैं। न्यू वर्ल्ड वेल्थ नामक संस्था की ताजा रिपोर्ट बताती है कि पिछले 14 साल में अपना देश छोड़ने वालों में 91 हजार की संख्या के साथ चीनी पहले नंबर पर हैं। कुछ समय पहले आई नाइट फ्रैंक नामक संस्था की एक रिपोर्ट के अनुसार हर चौथा भारतीय अरबपति देश छोड़ने को तैयार है।

    ताजा रिपोर्ट के अनुसार पिछले 10 साल में देश के 1 लाख 60 हजार रईसों में से 27 प्रतिशत यानी 43 हजार 400 लोग बेहतर भविष्य की तलाश में विदेश जा चुके हैं। संस्था के रिसर्च हेड एन्ड्रयू एमॉइल्स के अनुसार देश छोड़ने वालों की प्राथमिकता में 5 देश- अमेरिका, इंग्लैंड, ऑस्ट्रेलिया, सिंगापुर और यूएई हैं। इनके बाहर जाने के पीछे सबसे बड़ा कारण विदेश में बेहतर जीवन स्तर की संभावना और टैक्स बचाना ही है। अमेरिका, इंग्लैंड और ऑस्ट्रेलिया का आकर्षण अंग्रेजी भाषा, बेहतर जीवन स्तर, शिक्षा और सुरक्षा व्यवस्था हैं। वहीं यूएई और सिंगापुर में कम टैक्स का आकर्षण भी है।

    भारत में ये समस्याएं तो हैं ही

    -केंद्रीय प्रदूषण नियंत्रण बोर्ड की 2011-12 की रिपोर्ट के अनुसार देश के 60 प्रतिशत जल स्त्रोत में बीओडी कम है। 79 प्रतिशत महानगरों का वायुमंडल प्रदूषित है।
    -गंदगी और ट्रैफिक समस्या भी देश की बड़ी समस्याओं में शामिल है।
    -गरीबी, अशिक्षा, बड़े महानगरों को छोड़कर अधिकांश जगह बेहतर स्वास्थ्य सुविधाओं की कमी आजादी के इतने सालों बाद भी बनी हुई है। (teesri jung news)

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    चीन चोइट्याउनेलाई मन्त्रीको चिट्ठा

    युरोप-अमेरिकाबाट पहाडे जनजातिले बुद्ध धर्मको नाममा खोलेको संस्थामा लाखौँ डलर ओइरिने, त्यो पैसा नेपाली रकममा परिणत गरी किस्ताबन्दीका हिसाबले तराईबासीको नाममा निकासा हुने, मधेश आन्दोलनले तातेको ठाउँमा उक्त संस्थाको साधारणसभा बस्ने, त्यसैमा सहभागिता जनाउने व्यक्तिलाई लगत्तै गठित सरकारमा हत्त न पत्त विनाविभागीय मन्त्री तोकिने अचम्मको घटना सप्रमाण प्रकट भएको छ । पैसाको साइनो यति रहस्यमय कि त्यसले छिमेकी राष्ट्र टुक्र्याउने कार्यलाई समेत मजलज गर्दै गरेको प्रमाण भेटिएको छ ।

    उक्त संस्थाले तयार पारेको ३ महिने कार्ययोजनामा छिमेकी राष्ट्रबाट एउटा भाग चोइट्याउनका निम्ति केही शरणार्थीले जारी राखेको आन्दोलनलाई सघाउन आत्मदाहसम्मको कार्यक्रम निर्धारित गर्ने र त्यसको लागि दीर्घरोगी बिरामीलाई तयारी अवस्थामा राख्नेसमेत किटानी गरिएको छ । एकातिर दक्षिणको छिमेकी भारत मधेशका मान्छेको मन दुखाएको भन्दै काठमाडौंको केन्द्रिकृत सत्ताविरुद्ध नाकाबन्दीमा महिनौँदेखि उत्रिएको छ भने सोको उपजस्वरूप इन्धन, ग्यास र औषधिको अभावमा तड्पिएका नेपालीलाई थोरैमात्र भए पनि राहत उपलब्ध गराउन कस्सिएको उत्तरी छिमेकी चीनलाई यस्ता गतिविधिले सशंकित गराउने निश्चित छ । सधैँ उपद्य्राहा गतिविधि गरेर चर्चामा आइरहने विश्वेन्द्र पासवान त्यस्ता पात्र हुन्, जसको चीनविरोधी गतिविधिमा संलग्नता पुष्टि हुने निर्णय पुस्तिका जनआस्थाले फेला पारेको छ ।

    अमेरिका र युरोपलगायतका मुलुकबाट नियमित सहयोग बटुल्दै आएको बुद्धिष्ट जनअधिकार मञ्चसँग उनको विशेष संलग्नता रहेछ । यही संस्थाको विशेष साधारणसभा असोज १६ गते राजविराजमा सम्पन्न भएको थियो । अचम्म त के भने उक्त संस्थाको नाममा प्रभु बैंकको खाता (००१११६००६६१३६८०००००) मा डलर आउने, महासचिव अमरकान्त चौधरीले खुरुखुरु रकम निकाल्ने काम हुँदै आएको बैंक स्टेटमेन्टबाट देखिन्छ । अमरकान्त तराईबासी हुन्, उनले लगेको पैसा केमा खर्च भयो सोको हिसाब नदेखिनु र बारम्बार मधेशमा संस्थाले गतिविधि केन्द्रित गर्नुको साइनो अझैसम्म पनि केलाउन सकिएको छैन । गुहेश्वरी काठमाडौंमा कार्यालय रहेको भनिएको मञ्चको खातामा मार्च २२ देखि अक्टोबर १३, २०१५ (२०७१ चैत्र ८ देखि २०७२ असोज २६) सम्मको आर्थिक कारोबार हेर्ने हो भने यसको उद्देश्य र गतिविधिबारे शंका उठाउने प्रशस्त ठाउँ भेटिन्छ । संस्थालाई सेगरम्यान फेमिली ट्रष्ट, जोआन्ना के डोनोभान, क्यारोलाइन एभलिन, रोजान स्मिथ, ग्लोबल पर्पस ग्रुप, म्याकिन्से एण्ड कम्पनीलगायतले पटक पटक गरी अमेरिकी र अस्ट्रेलियन डलर, ब्रिटिश पाउण्ड पठाएको देखिन्छ ।

    यसमा ३० हजारदेखि बैसठ्ठी हजार ६ सय बाह्र डलरसम्म अनेक चरणमा इन्ट्री भएको खाताले जनाउँछ । यस्तो रकमको भोल्युम १ करोड ४९ लाख ५३ हजार ९ सय २३ सम्म पुग्ने गरेको, संस्थाका महासचिव अमरकान्तले एउटै चेकबाट ३१ लाख ५० हजारसम्म निकाल्ने गरेको समेत देखिन्छ । एउटा अर्को ७०७०५७८ नम्बरको चेकबाट उनले ३२ लाख ३० हजार निकालेको पनि पाइएको छ । २२ लाख, ३० लाख, ३१ लाख ५० हजार निकालिएको त हिसाब नै छैन । साउन १४ गते खातामा ३४ लाख ४१ हजार ८ सय ९९ र ५५ पैसा बराबरको ३३ हजार ७ सय ४७ डलर र असोज १ गते ५९ हजार ९ सय ७५ अमेरिकी डलर बराबरको ६३ लाख २५ हजार ५ सय ६३ रूपैयाँ नेपाल भित्रिएको प्रभु बैंकको खाताबाट देखिन्छ । असोज १७ गते संस्थाको नाममा ४२ सय ७० डलर आएको छ । त्यसको अघिल्लो दिन, विश्वेन्द्रले सप्तरीमा यस संस्थाको भेला बोलाएको र त्यसको १७ दिन नबित्दै उनै पासवानलाई नयाँ सरकारमा मन्त्री नियुक्त गरिएको छ ।

    बुद्धको नाममा खोलिएको संस्थाकी अध्यक्ष काठमाडौं १६ पकनाजोल स्थायी घर भई हाल बूढानिलकण्ठ बस्ने ५५ वर्षीया शकुन शेरनच हुन् । उनीसँग ७८० नम्बरको ०४४ साल साउन १५ गते जारी भएको नेपाली नागरिकता छ । श्रीमान् अमेरिकी नागरिक कित लेल्सी हुन् र संस्थाको कार्ययोजनामा नेपालस्थित तिब्बती नागरिकहरूले गरिरहेको स्वतन्त्र तिब्बतको संघर्षलाई नयाँ श्रृंखलामा अघि बढाउने, यसलाई सफल बनाउन आम हड्ताल, धर्ना, जुलुसलगायत आत्मदाहसम्म गर्ने, आत्मदाहको निम्ति दीर्घरोगी, बिरामीलाई तयारी हालतमा राख्ने, धर्मगुरु, दलाई लामालाई नेपाल ल्याउन संघर्षको शुरुआत गर्ने उल्लेख छ । संस्थामा शकुनले नेपाली सेनाका पूर्व प्रवक्ता दीपक गुरुङ र शाही सरकारमा सहायक मन्त्री रहेका गोपाल दहितलाई समेत सामेल गरेकी छन् । संस्थामा मधेशी मूलका कौशलकुमाल सिंह, सुनिलकुमार चौधरी, रञ्जितकुमार सिंहलाई समेत राखिएको छ ।

    संस्था सामाजिक ऐनअन्तर्गत २०७० साल माघ ८ गते दर्ता भएको हो । ऐनअनुसार यस्ता संस्थाले धार्मिक र सामाजिक सदभाव बिथोल्ने काम गर्न पाउँदैन । यिनले स्वर्गीय धर्मगुरु श्यामर्पा रिम्पोछेलाई काठमाडौं ल्याएर बौद्धस्थित हायात होटलको प्राङ्गणमा सप्ताह लगाएकी थिइन्, जहाँ पूर्व राष्ट्रपति रामवरण यादवलाई समेत प्रमुख अतिथि बनाइएको थियो । यसले दलाई लामासम्बद्ध भारतस्थित सबै धर्मशालालाई आफ्नो कार्यक्षेत्र तोकेको छ । नेपालले तिब्बतलाई चीनको अभिन्न अंगको मान्यता दिँदै एक चीन नीतिमा अडिग रहँदै आएको छ । सोही अनुरूप तिब्बतलाई चीनबाट अलग्याउन खोज्नेहरूका अगुवा दलाई लामालाई नेपाल छिर्न दिइएको छैन । तर, सो संस्थाद्वारा तयार पारिएको मंसिर मसान्तसम्म तेस्रो चरणको कार्यक्रमअन्तर्गत बुँदा नं.९ मा 'धर्मगुरुलाई नेपाल ल्याउन संघर्षको शुरुआत गर्ने, बौद्ध दर्शनविद्, खेम्पो आचार्यहरूको राष्ट्रिय भेला गरी केन्द्रीय परिषद् गठन गर्ने र 'सोको जानकारी रणनीतिक ढंगबाट महामहिम धर्मगुरु दलाई लामालाई गराउने'व्यहोरा पनि कार्ययोजनामा उल्लेख छ ।

    भारतमा रहेका तिब्बतीहरूमार्फत् प्राप्त रकम तल तल पठाउन परिचालित हुने पदाधिकारीहरूमा शकुन शेरचन, कुमारी रमिला गुरुङ (मध्यमाञ्चल विकास क्षेत्र), रामचन्द्र श्रेष्ठ, जीतबहादुर सारु, जिमी लामा (पश्चिमाञ्चल), विन्तिराम थारु, लीला लामालाई तोकिएको छ । मुलुकको ऐन तथा कानुन, राष्ट्रको अन्तर्राष्ट्रिय प्रतिबद्धता र नेपालले अंगिकार गर्दै आएको असंलग्न परराष्ट्र नीति तथा पञ्चशीलको सिद्धान्तविपरित छिमेकी मुलुकको अखण्डतालाई नै चुनौती पुग्ने गरी नेपालमा विधिवत दर्ता भएको संस्थाले काम गर्न पाउने कि नपाउने भन्ने प्रश्न बुद्धिष्ट जनअधिकार मञ्चले गरेका निर्णय र गतिविधिले उठाएको छ । नेपालको तराईलाई अस्थिर राखेर आर्थिक रूपमा जर्जर बनाउने, पहाडी तथा हिमाली क्षेत्रहरूमा चीनविरोधी गतिविधिलाई सक्रिय गराउने राष्ट्रघाती गतिविधिलाई स्वीकार गर्दै, त्यस्ता कार्ययोजना निर्माण र कार्यान्वयनमा सक्रिय रहँदै आएका व्यक्तिहरू नै मन्त्रिपरिदमा रहन्छन् भने दक्षिणी छिमेकीसँग सम्बन्ध बिग्रिएको बेला उत्तरी छिमेकी पनि तर्सिने कुरामा कसैले दुईमत नराख्ला ।


    -२०७२ कार्तिक १८ गते बुधवारको जन आस्था साप्ताहिकमा प्रकाशित


    On Tue, Nov 24, 2015 at 9:24 AM, Amrit Ratna Tuladhar <losthorizon@mail.com.np>wrote:

    Gentleman:

     

    This is to acknowledge the receipt of your esteemed message.  Many sincere thanks for the same.  I hereby appreciate your decent applause imposed on me.  It is found to be a deep admiration at this end indeed.  Affirmatively, we are today living in the "New Millennium."  Therefore, all should be aware of that norm and stay away from all old useless conservative concepts.  Or more accurately, let us all be broad-minded than narrow-minded.  This ought to be a thorough lesson to the obstinate guys.  

     

    We fervent regards and modest greetings. Long live Magar-Tuladhar solidarity !  Long live Mongol unity !  Long live Buddhist friendship !  Praise be the Buddha-Dharma !  Glory be the Great Himalayas !  Thanking you once more, I remain ---

     

    Faithfully yours,


    Amrit Ratna Tuladhar

    Tourism Entrepreneur
    Tourism Journalist
    Research Analyst
    Freelance Writer
                       

     

    ----- Original Message -----



    Agreed with Amrit Ratna Tuladhar jyu, whatever he has written based on evidences and facts. We are living in the 21st century world; but someone like Mr.Tilak Bahadur Shrestha and Mr. Drigha Raj Prasai are living in the different world, the world of fiction or may be  in the outer space or still struggling in the 12th century where religion rules the people in the name of blind faith.

     

    Regards.

    On Saturday, 21 November 2015, 16:36, Ram B Chherti <rambchhetri@hotmail.com> wrote:


    Absolutely right. More about it later. Thanks.

     

    Ram B. Chhetri


    Sent from my iPhone


    On Nov 21, 2015, at 8:06 a.m., uttamkhatri@mris.com wrote:

    Agreed one hundred percent. Some of the participants on this e-mail chain are wasting time arguing about Hinduism, Buddhism and lately beef, slaughtering and eating cow, etc. Some people seem to be presenting themselves so learned that they know everything about the religion they believe. 

     

    Nepal is in greatest crisis since the Anglo-Nepal War of 1814-16. Nepal's independence and sovereignty is in danger. India's long term plan after she was decolonized by the British in 1947 has consistently proved that she wants to colonize Nepal. Nepal's rulers whether it is the King, Panchayat Government, Nepali Congress Government, Communist Government or any other Governments in between have been facing Indian interference in the internal affairs of Nepal. 

     

    India is directly or indirectly responsible in The Madhesi movement and subsequent violence in Terai/Madhes. Indian attempt of interference in Nepal's new constitution and her agenda on federalism etc are obviously the evidence of Indian intention. The bottom line is India's long term design in Nepal is to Bhutanise Nepal if not Sikkimise an independent country. 

     

    Nepalis living in Washington DC metro area have organized a Protest Rally against the Undeclared Blockade imposed on Nepal by India. The Rally will be held  in front of the White House tomorrow, November 22, 2015. Let us all the Nepalis and friends of Nepal participate on the Protest Rally to show support for Nepal and people of Nepal.

     

    Warm Regards,

     

    Uttam B. Khatri

    Silver Spring, Maryland

    U.S.A.

    --
    Pl see my blogs;


    Feel free -- and I request you -- to forward this newsletter to your lists and friends!

    0 0


    We have latest agenda of Hinutva isseued by no one else but Praveen Togadia.I had to include a little bit of his speech recently in one of my video talks ,I am sharing the link once again if you missed it pleases see how democrat he seems to be just before asking Aamir Khan or anyone else to move out of India!


    Paradise Lost! हेइया हो,गोड़ उठाइके मूं पर मारो! के हग दें,सगरे जुलमी ससुरो! রক্তে বোনা ধান ! 

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ODxoK9DQJAM


    मैं नास्तिक क्यों हूं# Necessity of Atheis#!Genetics Bharat Teertha#Charvak # one blood India! 

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tt5g_AlXVvU

    Palash Biswas

    We will celebrate when Ram mandir will be built on Ayodhya's Ram Janmabhoomi": Praveen Togadia
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FofyJo1VP8A

    Here you are!He calls for it once again!VHP leader Pravin Togadia repeated the demand and said: "The Central government should pass an Act in Parliament to construct a Ram Temple in Ayodhya. It will be a fitting tribute to Ashok Singhal," he said. Togadia said 

    Mind you,"In spite of lot of pressure from a section of the RSS, the PM has made it clear that development is what the government has to focus on", said a BJP leader. Glowing tributes were paid to Singhal by Sangh Parivar leaders, including VHP president Pravin Togadia, former VHP president Vishnu Hari Dalmiya, saffron leader Rithambhara, BJP president Amit Shah, BJP veteran Murli Manohar Joshi, Union ministers M. Venkaiah Naidu, Dr Harsh Vardhan, Ravi Shankar Prasad and Sadhvi Niranjan Jyoti, among others. However, the construction of a temple on the disputed site in Ayodhya where a frenzied mob led by senior BJP leaders had demolished a 16th century Babri mosque is neither on the party's nor on the NDA government's agendas.

    Nov 26 2015 : The Economic Times (Kolkata) reports:
    TOGADIA SHUNS `FRINGE' TAG - VHP Aims to Unite Hindu Brigade
    
    
    The Vishva Hindu Parishad, an offshoot of the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh, has said it will strive to bring together everybody working for the `Hindu cause', reports Vasudha Venugopal.RSS recently distanced itself from the right-wing groups allegedly involved in violence.


    RSS leaders push for construction of Ram Temple in Ayodhya at Ashok Singhal's condolence meet!

    Mind you,a condolence meeting for VHP patron Ashok Singhal in New delhi recently relanched ram Mandir campaign afresh as  provided a forum for the Sangh Parivar to push for construction of Ram Temple in Ayodhya with RSS chief Mohan Bhagwat saying "serious attempts" should be made to accomplish the Hindutva leader's dream in this regard.

    As glowing tributes were paid to Singhal, Bhagwat recalled Singhal's last meeting with him earlier this month and said he wanted two things to be accomplished--construction of Ram temple at Ram Janambhoomi and propagation of Vedas. The same should be accomplished by working sincerely towards them, he said.

    "Ashokji during my meeting had shared his two resolves - of building the Ram Temple at Ram Janmabhoomi and spreading Vedic wisdom in the world. If we have to accomplish the resolve of Ashokji, we have to take a pledge today to make his resolve ours.

    "We have to make serious attempts to accomplish the Ram temple and that will be a true tribute to him. Ashokji's spirit will guide us in this task. We have to keep moving and working on the path shown by Ashokji and in the coming few years we hope to work towards accomplaishing his dream of Ram Temple," he said at a function to pay tributes to Singhal.

    The RSS supremo at the memorial service said Singhal is no more but his thoughts are with us and the task he undertook (of building the Ram Temple) yielded some results.

    Bhagwat said Singhal, who had become synonymous with the Ram Temple movement, was an orator par excellence, a true stalwart of Hindutva movement, a good classical singer and a guiding force for all.

    BJP veteran Murli Manohar Joshi also shared his over 60-year relationship with Singhal, saying he was committed to the spread of vedic wisdom and values in the world. He said Ram and Bharat are synonymous with each other and sought to remove misconceptions, asserting he never sought to divide people but was a unifying factor.

    "Ram is Bharat and Bharat is Ram and both are synonymous.

    If you want to develop Bharat, then Ram temple would also have to be set up. Ashokji was never communal or divisive and sought to unify people.

    "It is considered divisive these days to talk about Ram temple. We can confidently say that Bharat was a Vishwaguru and will be one...But, a confused country cannot move forward.

    To call it divisive is against our country's tradition," he said.

    Singhal was a spiritual and unifying person and due to his personality he brought leaders of all communities and sects together on one platform, he said. 

    During the meeting, former VHP president Vishnu Hari Dalmia set the tone for construction of Ram temple at Ayodhya, saying it would be a true tribute to Singhal, who dedicated his entire life for Hindutva and spearheaded the Ram Janambhoomi movement. He called upon Bhagwat to press upon the government for early construction of the temple.

    VHP international working president Pravin Togadia called for passage of a law in Parliament for the construction of Ram Temple at Ayodhya on the lines of Somnath temple.

    "The Central government should pass an Act in Parliament to construct a Ram temple in Ayodhya, It will be a fitting tribute to Ashok Singhal," he said, adding that Singhal was committed for elimination of untouchability and caste bias.

    BJP President Amit Shah who specially flew back to Delhi for the condolence meeting after casting his vote in civic polls in Ahmedabad, said the demise of Ashok Singhal was an irreparable loss to the Sangh Parivar and nation. He was the architect as well as leader of the biggest mass movement of India post independence, he said. 

    Dr Pravin Togadia - Developement & Hindutva TOGETHER ...

    ▶ 39:51
    Sep 6, 2015 - Uploaded by drpravintogadia vhp
    Dr Praveenbhai Togadia. ... Dr Pravin Togadia - Developement &Hindutva TOGETHER only can make ...

    Will strive to bring all Hindu groups together: Pravin Togadia

    Economic Times-
    VHP's international working president Pravin Togadia told ET that the organisation will strive to bring together all individuals and organisations ...

    Nov 26 2015 : The Economic Times (Kolkata)
    VHP CHIEF SHUNS `FRINGE' TAG - Striving to Bring All Hindu Groups Together: Togadia
    Vasudha Venugopal
    New Delhi:
    
    
    `Fringe' is a notorious invention of vested interests groups who have no say in masses
    The Vishva Hindu Parishad has said it will strive to bring together everybody working for the cause of the community, seemingly differing from its sister organisation, the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh, which recently distanced itself from the right wing groups allegedly involved in violence. VHP's international working president Pravin Togadia told ET that the organisation will strive to bring together all individuals and organisations working for the Hindu cause and look to create a "sangathit Hindu samaj (united Hindu society)" in the next 10 years.

    The RSS had, in the wake of uproar over the lynching of a Muslim man in Dadri and murder of writer MM Kalburgi, among other instances of intolerance, distanced itself from the so-called fringe right wing groups. "The word `fringe' is a notorious inven tion of the vested interests groups who have no say in the masses.

    There is absolute ly no dissociation of the Sangh from VHP ," he said.

    He said: "Today , when New York or Paris is attacked by the jihadis, the entire world stands together against jihadis. For the past many years we have been explaining the jihadis' dirty designs to disturb the world peace, and still we were termed `fringe', `anti-nationals'."

    Togadia, a cancer surgeon by profession, assumed full responsibility of the organisation in 2011 after Ashok Singhal fell ill. With Singhal's passing away last week, he is believed to be in complete control of VHP . Besides pursuing its demands of building a Ram temple, enactment of a national law banning cow progeny slaughter and conversions, abrogation of Article 370 and introduction of uniform civil code, VHP will strive for a central level Hindu human rights commission and conduct a drive to inspire Indian youth to join the armed forces, Togadia said. "Ram temple is not a sporadic issue for either VHP or for Hindus.It has been a commitment. The Dharma Sansad (VHP's religious parliament) had made a demand earlier and even now that Parliament should make a law to build Ram temple in Ayodhya.Sarsangchalak Bhagwatji has already said serious attempts must be made to build Ram temple. The Sangh is our maatru sangathan (mother organisation)," he said.

    He said VHP is sure that "with the full majority now the current government will definitely go for it, as it is the BJP's commitment too".

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    At condolence meet for VHP patron Ashok Singhal Sunday, the RSS pushed for construction of Ram Temple in Ayodhya. RSS chief Mohan Bhagwat said "serious attempts" should be made to accomplish Singhal's dream as he recalled his last meeting with him earlier this month.

    Bhagwat said Singhal had two desires — construction of Ram Temple in Ayodhya and propagation of Vedas.

    "If we have to accomplish the resolve of Ashokji, we have to take a pledge today to make his resolve ours. We have to make serious attempts to build the Ram Temple and that will be a true tribute to him. Ashokji's spirit will guide us in this task" he said, adding that "in the coming few years we hope to work towards accomplishing his dream of Ram Temple."

    During Singhal's birthday celebrations last month, VHP had pushed for the construction of Ram temple in the presence of Union Home Minister Rajnath Singh as well as the RSS chief.

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    While last month Rajnath Singh had listed the 'Ram Janmabhoomi' movement among the two biggest movements of independent India, BJP chief Amit Shah Sunday called it the "biggest movement after Independence" whose "hero and architect" was Singhal.

    Apart from Shah and Bhagwat, a host of senior Union ministers gathered to pay tributes to Singhal, including Ravi Shankar Prasad, Dr Harsh Vardhan, Venkaiah Naidu and Sadhvi Niranjan Jyoti, besides the top brass of the RSS.

    At the event, former Union Minister Murli Manohar Joshi said: "Ram is Bharat. Bharat is Ram. Ashokji's dream is incomplete without the construction of the Ram Temple," he said.

    "It is considered divisive these days to talk about the Ram Temple. We can confidently say that Bharat was a Vishwaguru and will be one…To call it divisive is against our country's tradition," he said.

    VHP has often demanded a law for ensuring the construction of Ram Temple at Ayodhya.

    VHP leader Pravin Togadia repeated the demand and said: "The Central government should pass an Act in Parliament to construct a Ram Temple in Ayodhya. It will be a fitting tribute to Ashok Singhal," he said. Togadia said that "we will not mourn the death of Ashokji, instead take a resolve of celebrating it as Hindu victory."

    Former VHP president Vishnu Hari Dalmia also said that construction of Ram Temple at Ayodhya will be a true tribute to Singhal, who dedicated his entire life for Hindutva and spearheaded the Ram Janmabhoomi movement. He urged Bhagwat to ask the government for early construction of the temple.

    - See more at: http://indianexpress.com/article/india/india-news-india/ram-temple-will-be-true-tribute-to-ashok-singhal-says-rss-chief/#sthash.GdSxP6ov.dpuf

    With Ashok Singhal gone, will Praveen Togadia be more emboldened to take on Narendra Modi?

    Despite his strong beliefs, the tensions between the VHP and the BJP never reached a flash point under Singhal, but Togadia is more of a loose cannon and has past scores to settle.
      · Nov 18, 2015 · 05:30 pm
    25.3K
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    Will Pravin Togadia feel more emboldened to take on his bête noire Prime Minister Narendra Modi after the death of  senior Vishwa Hindu Parishad leader Ashok Singhal?

    Although Togadia was named International Working President of the VHP leader in 2011 when Singhal decided to step down because of ill-health, the senior leader continued to exercise considerable influence over the organisation. Singhal was at the forefront of the Ram temple movement in the early 1990s and was responsible for the growth of the Bharatiya Janata Party along with veteran leader LK Advani.

    The 89-year-old Singhal was unapologetic about his mission to propagate the Hindutva agenda of the Rashtriya Swayamsewak Sangh and press for the construction of the Ram Mandir in Ayodhya. Despite his strong beliefs, the tensions between the VHP and the BJP never reached a flash point as Singhal took care not to cross the Lakshman rekha drawn by the RSS.

    In a different mould

    However, Togadia is cast in a different mould. He is hot-headed, often described by BJP insiders as a loose cannon, known for making inflammatory speeches and promoting a rabid brand of Hindutva which often becomes a source of embarrassment for the BJP.  More importantly, he has a strong and personal dislike for Modi.

    Singhal was also known to take potshots at Modi. He had even likened him to Mohammad Ghazni when the Modi government demolished a large number of temples in Gujarat. However, Singhal made up with Modi subsequently and was known to have a cordial relationship with the prime minister. However, this is not the case with Togadia who remains steadfastly opposed to Modi.

    Now that Togadia will have free run of VHP affairs, will he create trouble for  Modi by stepping up his rhetoric?

    It is still early to predict the turn of events but BJP insiders believe that the RSS will keep Togadia in check and that the VHP leader will not say or do anything  to earn the Sangh's wrath. "There is no doubt that Togadia's articulation of issues is different from that of Singhal but I think he will function within the parameters set by the RSS," remarked a BJP leader.

    While that may be well be true, there is also no denying the antipathy between Togadia and Modi.

    Thick as thieves once...

    The  two were once known in Gujarat as the "Jai-Veeru" jodi, after the lead-pair in filmSholay, as they criss-crossed Gujarat to propagate the Sangh's ideology. Modi and Togadia were key figures in the Keshubhai Patel government who fought together to quell the Shankersinh Vaghela-led revolt. The duo was so close that Modi even hit the streets when Togadia was jailed by Vaghela.

    Togadia wielded immense power when Modi was first named Gujarat chief minister in 2001. The VHP leader played a key role in the postings of police officers and  ensured the appointment  of his known loyalist Gordhan Zadaphia as  minister of state for home in Modi's team. However, the two parted company after the 2002 Gujarat assembly elections when Modi moved quickly to cut Togadia to size. Modi took on Togadia's loyalists and sent out a clear message that he will not tolerate their interference in the functioning of his government.

    Their relationship reached breaking point when the Modi government cracked down on VHP cadres for their role in the 2002 riots. Sidelined in his home state, Togadia hit back at Modi in the 2012 assembly elections when the VHP rank and file openly worked against Modi and even helped the Gujarat Parivartan Party, led by rebels Keshubhai Patel and Gordhan Zadaphia. But Togadia failed in this mission as Modi emerged stronger, catapulting him to the national political scene.


    Waiting for an opportunity

    Although he has been overtaken by others in the BJP, Togadia has made several attempts to unsettle Modi with his intemperate remarks and rabid speeches. He had famously declared once that Gujarat would be declared a Hindu state. He hit out at the Modi government for not taking  stern action against pro-Pakistani elements in Jammu and Kashmir and had even said that "it is necessary to shoot people if they hoist Pakistani flags." The VHP chief was also quick to criticise the government's  "foreign policy with regard to Pakistan" following the terrorist attack in Gurdaspur, stating sarcastically that Modi should put an end to the "saree, shawl diplomacy".

    Given Modi's tight grip over the BJP and the government, Togadia is , at best, a minor irritant for the Prime Minister. However, the VHP chief can be expected to flex his muscles at the first hint of trouble for Modi. Togadia is in no position to unseat his bête noire but he could stir up a storm to make it difficult for him to function.

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    लगे रहो,बाबासाहेब बेदखल और अब संविधान दिवस भी बेदखल। गैंडे की खाल मुबारक,बहुजनों!


    कातिल जब मुहब्बत करें जियादा जियादा तो समझो कि कत्लआम होकर रहेगा!

    पलाश विश्वास

    अब बहुजन समाज को आराम है कि महाराष्ट्र सरकार के बाद भारत सरकार भी संविधान दिवस मनाने लगी है।लाखों अंबेडकरवादी संगठनों को अब शायद यह तकलीफ उठाने की जरुरत नहीं है।


    कल्कि अवतार से संविधान कौन बेहतर कौण जाणे हैं।  


    कोलकाता में दीदी का जलवा रहा और वे घमासान बोली संविधान पर।असहिष्णुता के खिलाफ भी वे धुआंधार बोली हैं।

    उनकी सहिष्णुता हालांकि बंगाल में कानून व्यवस्था बहार।



    बीफ बैन से लेकर खान पान के हकहकूक और बोलने लिखने की आजादी से लेकर आमिर खान के प्रसंग में भी।प्रतिक्रया पर जरुर गौर करते रहे।दीदी ने सीबीआई के बेजां इस्तेमाल के खिलाफ लाखों मुसलमानों के जलसे में गुर्रायी भी खूब है।


    अब देखना है कि दीदी के खिलाफ फतवा जारी होता है पाकिस्तान चले जाने का या सीबीआई ठंडे बस्ते में से फिर निकालकर शारदा का जिन्न खड़ा करती है।


    जो भी होगा सियासती तौर पर मजेदार होगा।


    भीतर ही भीतर पक क्या रहा है और खुशबू असल है या नकली कहना मुश्किल है।वाम जरुर हाशिये पर दोबारा।


    कुलो समीकरण यह है बंगाल का कि मुसलामान दीदी के साथ हैं और बहुजन कमसकम वामदलों के हक में नहीं हैं।


    ऐसे में केसरियाकरण जारी रहा और पिछले लोकसभा चुनावों की तरह औचक संघी वोटबैंक गुब्बारा बन जाये तो कांग्रेस और वाम दलों का सफाया तय है।मातम अभी मना लें।


    बाकी नौटंकी में लैला मजनूं का खेल हो या शीरीं फरहाद हो,कोई फर्क नहीं पड़ता क्योंकि इस समीकरण में लाल नीला दोनों अब्दुल्ला दीवाना है और बहुत जल्द बंगाल के चुनाव में हिसाब बराबर हो जाना है।


    उधर नई दिल्ली में धर्मनिरपेक्षता को फर्जी बताकर फासिज्म के राजकाज ने संविधान दिवस मनाया है।


    सरकारी महकमों में न संसाधनों की कमी है और न लाव लश्कर की,संविधान दिवस की ऐसी धूम अभूतपूर्व है और लोगों को पता भी नहीं है कि किस संविधान का यह जश्न है।


    संवैधानिक प्रावधानों को खत्म करके संपूर्ण निजीकरण संपूर्ण विनिवेश,संपूर्ण एफडीआई के साथोसाथ जनसंख्या घटाने के एजंडे में संविधान दिवस का मतलबे क्या है।


    कल ही अमलेंदु ने हस्तक्षेप पर शमशुल हक का अंग्रेजी आलेक टांग दियाःTHE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA DAY: REMAIN VIGILANT AGAINST HINDUTVA WHICH ALWAYS DENIGRATED IT!


    न पढ़ा हो तो इसे जरुर पढ़ लें।

    हम तो संवैधानिक प्रवधानों,नागरिक और मानवाधिकार के हाल हकीकत के बारे में बतियाते रहे हैं।


    नेता मंत्री अफसर लेखक कलाकार आइकनवा,डागदर कोई बामहण हो,गुरुजी कोई बामहण हो,पुरोहित सगरे बामहण हो तो जो ससुरे भागे नहीं,वे हस्तक्षेप से परहेज करे और फिन हालात बदलने की क्रांति को अंजाम भी दें,वाह!


    जो मसीहा संप्रदाय हैं,उनके जलवे बहुत हैं और अंबेडकरी आंदोलन के वे ही झंडेवरदार।


    हर बारात में वे ही दूल्हा हैंऔर किसी को मालूम होता नहीं है कि दूल्हाक्या क्या दहेज आगे पीछे वसूल रहे हैं।


    बारातियों को खाना पीना बराबर चाहिए और मौज मस्ती भी कुछ हो तो मजे ही मजे।


    अंबेडकर की यह दुर्गति खत्म हुई समझो।भौत ही जियादा मुहब्बत जताया जा रहा है अंबेडकर से और बहुजनों के सफाये का चाक चौबंद इंतजाम है।


    गांव देहात में अब वैदिकी रीत रिवाज लोकरिवाज पर बारी है और पूजा चाहे गैरवैदिकी मिथकों की हो रही हो,कर्मकांड होम यज्ञ और बलि अनिवार्य है।


    बलि का वह नजारा नगरों,उपनगरों और महानगरों में कम नहीं है।नरबलि कानूनन अवैध है,इसलिए नारियल को नरमुंड का प्रतीक बनाकर शुभमुहूर्त पर फोड़कर शिलान्यास शुभकर्म की परंपरा है और इस प्रसंग में सबसे जियादा महत्व बलिप्रदत्त का ही होता है।


    बलि से पहले हर बकरे की खातिरदारी में कोई कसर रहे नहीं,बलिप्रदत्तकी देह में कोई खोट रहे नहीं,यह जजमान और पुरोहित का सरदर्द है।


    पूरे देश में वैदिकी कर्मकांड जोर शोर से जारी है और बलि का बंदोबस्त भी खूब है।यह मृत्यु उपत्यका दरअसल अनंत बलिबेदी है और अपना अपना सर चढ़ावा देने को भेड़धंसान।


    जल जंगल जमीन से बेदखल,आजीविका रोजगार से बेदखल,खान पान से बेदखल लोगों से कुछ जियादा ही जियादा मुहब्बत जतायी जा रही है जैसे उनकी फिक्र में अरबपति जातिधर्म की सियासत की साझे वातानुकूलित बिस्तर में लिव इन बिरादरी की नींदो हराम है।


    तकनीक और विज्ञान का कमाल है कि कहीं भी ,किसी भी हाल में हम जैसे कुछ भी करने को आजाद हैं जैसा मनचाहे क्योंकि क्रियाकर्म के सारे रंगबिरंगे सुगंधित उपकरण हैं,उसीतरह लोकतंत्र के वातानुकूलित साझा शयनकक्ष की नूरा कुश्ती भी लाइव है।ताकाताकी झांझांकी खूबो है।जो सोवै,वे मजे में,जो अब्दुल्ला दीवाना ध्वजभंग,वे भी खूब शीत्कारे।नाइटक्लब ह।


    हमउ समझ रियो ह कि वे आपसे में भिड़े हैं,जैसे किसी जवान दंपत्ति की मासूम संतान देर रात अचानक नींद से जागने के बाद जिस दृश्य के मुखातिब होते हैं,समझदार मां बाप उसे मजे मजे में व्यायाम,योगभ्यास कुछ भी कह देते हैं।


    कुछ जियादा समझदार लोग राबड़ी वगैरह खिलाकर बच्चों को सुला देते हैं रात गहराने से पहले। खाते रहो राबड़ी।


    भारतीय लोकतंत्र वही गहराई रात है और लोकतंत्र का गुलशन गुल बहार।बाकी आम नागरिक शिशु हैं कि उन्हें कुछ भी झुनझुना थमा दो तो वे कतई नहीं समझेंगे कि आखिर गरम लिहाफ के किस्से दरअसल क्या हैं और किसके लिहाफ में कौन हैं।यह झुनझुना बजाता है खूब,जैसे मंडल और मंडल।विकास और डिजिटल इंडिया का तिलिस्म।मुक्त बाजार तबाही का।


    यही पहेली है कि कबहुं न जान सको कि कौन किससे मिला है और किसे आखिर किससे मुहब्बत है।कौन किसके साथ सोवै।


    तलाक का सिलसिला सीरियल है कि समझो न सकत कि कौन किससे कब कहां शादी कर रिया  है  और कौन सी जोड़ी असल बा कौन सी नकल।कौन हो रहा बेदखल।कौन दखलदार।


    आज बहुजन नेता कोई अंबेडकर मूर्ति के साये में खूब जोर पाद रिया था कि लोकतंत्र है और बाबासाहेब ने हर नागरिक के हवाले एटमो बम दे दिहिस कि बटन चांप दो तो तुरंते व्यवस्था बदली।एटमो बम कितनो ही बार छोड़ दियो लेकिन बिस्तर और लिहाफ के अंदर के किस्से वहींच।हमउ उल्लू बरोबर।


    हमउ जब देश जोड़ने की गुहार लगा दिहिस,कोई नीली क्रांति के कामरेड ने सीधे पूछ लिया कि आप किस पार्टी  के हो और आप भी तो दीदी की तरह मुसलमानों के हक हकूक पर बोल रहे हो।जानते नहीं कि मुसलमान कितने खतरनाक हैं।


    बहुत दिनों बाद भौत गुस्सा आया कि ये अंबेडकर केकैसे निराले भगत हैं अंधे कि संविधान भी पाद रहे हैं और मुसलमान को दुश्मन भी बता रहे हैं।बहुजन समाज।


    राजकाज के स्तर पर संविधान दिवस का आशय यहींच।


    लाल नीला मसलन हरेक रंग अब केसरिया है।


    जियादा जियादा मुहब्बत का मतबल इन्हें का बताया जाये कि आतंक के खिलाफ जुध से लेकर फिर हुलस हुलसके कारसेवकों का आवाहन के मंदिर वहींच बनावेके खातिर नयका हिंदुत्व का एजंडा आखेरे अफगानिस्तान इराक सीरिया नजारा है।


    हमारे गुरुजी ने सुबो सुबो धुांदार दीवाल लेखन कर दिया और उन्हींको समेटे बिना घर से निकरते निकरते देरी हुई रहे तो सोदेपुर से कोलकाता के दिल धर्मतल्ला और कोलकाता मैदान में मुसलमानों का लाखोंलाख हुजूम।


    जो हम बतावत रहे तो दसों दिशाओं से सुनने वाले वे ही मुसलमान हजारों की तादाद में और वे ही मुसलमान लाखों लाख हिजाब पहनी बहनिया को सुनने वाले।


    बहुजन समाज के लोग कहां होते हैं,कोई नहीं जानता।



    सरकारी महकमों में जयंती वगैरह में भाखन पेलो परतियोगिता के बाद जो गिफ्टवा रियेलिटी शो के मुताबिक राजकोष से बांटी जाये,लाभान्वितों के अलावा मजमे में ठहरता कोई चेहरा नहीं होता।


    ये ही मुसलमान और उनके नेता बगावत किये रहे।पिछले साल इसी मौके पर बहनिया के मैके में ही उनकी पुलिस और पुलिसिया अफसरान को धुने रहिस जबकि पुलिस दीदी के मातहत ही है। वे ही मुसलमान अब दीदी के पाले में हैं।


    आज ही माकपा निस्कासित कामरेड रेज्जाक अली मोल्ला की पार्टी की रैली भी धर्मतल्ला में थी।जंगी एसयूसी की रैली थी और मदरसा शिक्षकों की रैली थी।दीदी के मुकाबले सब फेल।


    अब बंगाल में कमसकम नीली क्रांति तो होने से रही।

    यूपी में भी बहुजन वसंत बहार नइखे।

    उहां भी सर्वजन हिताय।


    जबकि लाखों संगठन रंगबिरंगे बहुजनों के और उनमें नेता के सिवाय कोई कार्यकर्ता होता नहीं है।कोई किसी से बोले भी नहीं।कौन किसके बिस्तर मा घुसलल कोई नाही जाने।


    कार्यकर्ता मसीहा की मार्केंटिंग में होते हैं और वे होलटाइम खटकर रोजी रोटी पाते हैं मसीहा का हिस्सा ले देकर।


    महाराष्ट्र में तो धड़ों में बंटाधार नीली क्रांति की।

    राम जितने बहुजन समाज में पैदा हुए सारेके सारे हनुमान ह।


    फिर भी सत्ता दखल करने का बीज मंत्र जापते हुए नत्थी हो रहे हैं सत्ता के साथ और वे ही लोग कारसेवकों की पैदल फौजें।


    छह लाख गांवों के भारत में छह लाख जातियों को मजबूत करने,और जियादा से जियादा आरक्षण और कोटा लूटकर आखेर अपने ही कुनबे को मालामाल करने में निष्णात हैं बहुजन और सत्ता कैसे मिलेगी और समता और नियाय की फसल कैसे इस कटकटेला अंधियारे में तेज बत्तीवालों की रोशनी में काटेंगे,कवायद यही है।


    सुबो से बाबासाहेब के फोट दे मार दे।

    सुबो से संविधन का फोटो दे मार दे।


    बाबासाहेब पहिले ही विष्णु का अवतार,गडसे की मंदिर के साथ उनके भी बन रहे हैं भव्य राममंदिर।


    संविधान का तो रोजे रोज बेड़ा गर्क औररोजे रोज इसी संविधान के तहत जलुमोसितम बेइंतहा।


    ना कानून का राज और न सुनवाई।


    पादै मा भौते जोर जबरजंग लेकिन चीखने की औकात नहीं।

    गुलामी की चाशनी भौते मीठी है और जूठन का जायका हमारी जन्नत है।बाकी पेर तंत्र मंत्र ताबीज और चक्रब्यूह।


    लगे रहो,बाबासाहेब बेदखल और अब संविधान दिवस भी बेदखल।गैंडे की खाल मुबारक,बहुजनों!


    We have latest agenda of Hinutva isseued by no one else but Praveen Togadia.I had to include a little bit of his speech recently in one of my video talks ,I am sharing the link once again if you missed it pleases see how democrat he seems to be just before asking Aamir Khan or anyone else to move out of India!



    Paradise Lost! हेइया हो,गोड़ उठाइके मूं पर 


    मारो! के हग दें,सगरे जुलमी ससुरो! রক্তে বোনা ধান ! 



    https://www.youtube.com/watch?


    v=ODxoK9DQJAM



    मैं नास्तिक क्यों हूं# Necessity of 


    Atheis#!Genetics Bharat Teertha#Charvak 


    # one blood India! 


    https://www.youtube.com/watch?


    v=tt5g_AlXVvU



    --
    Pl see my blogs;


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  • 11/26/15--21:39: Tolerance!Didi dares to call for Jihad against Intolerance! কমরেড,ডরাইও না ক্যালানিতে,শিয়রে টুইস্টার! হিজাব শোভিত দিদি লুটিয়া নিছে ভোটব্যান্ক! কাঁদিও কমরেড মাটিতে লুটিয়াইয়া,ঠাকুর কহিলেন টাকা মাটি মাটি টাকা,সেই মায়া বুঝিলে না! জেলে হোক বা জলে সে এখন গহীন জলে,বেণী তবুও ভিজিল না,রক্তগঙ্গা বুঝিবে আবার কাহারে কয়! # CALIBAN# Mandate#ISIS Execution#Pay Scales #Manto# Reforms# Tempest# Avatar#Toba Tek Singh https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uuUFYDhqOLo Twister (1996) Official Trailer #1 - Helen Hunt, Bill Paxton Movie https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HCIK_AN8Zn4 लगे रहो, बाबासाहेब बेदखल और अब संविधान दिवस भी बेदखल। गैंडे की खाल मुबारक, बहुजनों ! लगे रहो, बाबासाहेब बेदखल और अब संविधान दिवस भी बेदखल। गैंडे की खाल मुबारक, बहुजनों ! 2015/11/26 Didi explained Indian Constitution all the way out of parliament on the streets and raised the Tempest! Why should she opt for the linguistics of unprecedented violence? Palash Biswas
  • Tolerance!Didi dares to call for Jihad against Intolerance!

    কমরেড,ডরাইও না ক্যালানিতে,শিয়রে টুইস্টার!

    হিজাব শোভিত দিদি লুটিয়া নিছে ভোটব্যান্ক!

    কাঁদিও কমরেড মাটিতে লুটিয়াইয়া,ঠাকুর কহিলেন

    টাকা মাটি মাটি টাকা,সেই মায়া বুঝিলে না!

    জেলে হোক বা জলে সে এখন গহীন জলে,বেণী তবুও

    ভিজিল না,রক্তগঙ্গা বুঝিবে আবার কাহারে কয়!

    # CALIBAN# Mandate#ISIS Execution#Pay Scales #Manto# Reforms# Tempest# Avatar#Toba Tek Singh

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uuUFYDhqOLo


    Twister (1996) Official Trailer #1 - Helen Hunt, Bill Paxton Movie
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HCIK_AN8Zn4


    लगे रहो, बाबासाहेब बेदखल और अब संविधान दिवस भी बेदखल। गैंडे की खाल मुबारक, बहुजनों !



    लगे रहो, बाबासाहेब बेदखल और अब संविधान दिवस भी बेदखल। गैंडे की खाल मुबारक, बहुजनों !

    2015/11/26



    Didi explained Indian Constitution all the way out of parliament on the streets and raised the Tempest!

    Why should she opt for the linguistics of unprecedented violence?

    Palash Biswas

    She did never care for Parliamentary debate.She creates the Tempest right into the heart of the City of Joy.She makes the streets spellbound and every corner of Bengal gets the echoe-It is full fledged Jihad against INTOLERANCE and she has nothing to do with the definition of Secularism discussed in the Parliament to remember Dr.BR BR Ambedkar and his constitution!


    It might not be Indian constitution any more as Rule of Law missed and civic human rights violated,reforms handling the constitutional safeguards ensured by Baba Saheb for the toiling masses,working class, producers, women and children.But governance of institutional fascism celebrated Constitution day to kill the Constitution.Didi paid back right from the streets.

    Didi explained Indian Constitution all the way out of parliament on the streets and raised the Tempest!


    She struck the screaming headlines LIVE as well as the heart and Mind in Bengal!


    I never do understand  the lady who is no doubt got her doctorate in pragmatic practical politics of aggression unbound with a solid defence! Why should she opt for the linguistics of unprecedented violence?

    Indian Express reports:Winter session: Govt vs Oppn starts with our Ambedkar vs your Ambedkar

    Winter session: Govt vs Oppn starts with our Ambedkar vs your Ambedkar

    Rajnath Singh, initiating a discussion in Lok Sabha on the commitment to India's Constitution as part of the 125th birth anniversary celebrations of Dr B R Ambedkar, antagonised the Opposition by saying secularism is now the most "misused" word.

    http://indianexpress.com


    সেই কন্ঠস্বর কোথায়?

    Memoirs of another day!মমতা ব্যানার্জী মুসলমানদের দেওয়া প্রতিশ্রুতির একাংশও পূর্ণ করেনি দাবী আদায়ের জন্য 'যৌথ মঞ্চে' পশ্চিমবঙ্গের মুসলিমরা. সেদিন ছিল Sunday ... এই যৌথ মঞ্চের প্রধান হিসাবে সকলেই মেনে নিয়েছেন রাজ্যের সবথেকে বড় ঈদের জমায়েত পরিচালনা করেন যে বর্ষীয়ান ইমাম, সেই ক্বারী ফজলুর রহমানকে

    সেই কন্ঠস্বর কোথায়?

    কমরেড,ডরাইও না ক্যালানিতে,শিয়রে টুইস্টার!

    হিজাব শোভিত দিদি লুটিয়া নিছে ভোটব্যান্ক!

    কাঁদিও কমরেড মাটিতে লুটিয়াইয়া,ঠাকুর কহিলেন

    টাকা মাটি মাটি টাকা,সেই মায়া বুঝিলে না!

    জেলে হোক বা জলে সে এখন গহীন জলে,বেণী তবুও

    ভিজিল না,রক্তগঙ্গা বুঝিবে আবার কাহারে কয়!


    লোকসভা নির্বাচনে গৌরিক মেরুকরণের হাওয়া নিজের পালে টেনে নিতে  মমতা ব্যানার্জিআসানসোলের জনসভায় সরাসরি মোদিকে আক্রমণ করে বলেন, "যিনি দেশের ইতিহাস জানেন না, সংবিধানকে উপেক্ষা করেন, বাঙালি-অবাঙালি করেন, তাঁর. প্রধানমন্ত্রী হওয়ার যোগ্যতা নেই। যাঁর জিভের লাগাম ... সভায় প্রায় হাজার বারো মানুষ জমায়েতহয়েছিল।


    জুম্মেবর হোক্ না হোক্,কোলকাতায় কাল ছিল সঠিক জুম্মের নামাজের নাজারা।হিজাবে শোভিত দিদির আজানে নতজানু ইবাদত ফিজাঁ।কি আবার জিহাদ অনিবার্য অসহিষ্ণুতার প্রতিবাদেজুম্মেবর হোক্ না হোক্,কোলকাতায় কাল ছিল সঠিক জুম্মের নামাজের নাজারা।হিজাবে শোভিত দিদির আজানে নতজানু ইবাদত ফিজাঁ।প্রয়োজনে দিল্লী হইব কলকত্তাজুম্মেবর হোক্ না হোক্,কোলকাতায় কাল ছিল সঠিক জুম্মের নামাজের নাজারা।হিজাবে শোভিত দিদির আজানে নতজানু ইবাদত ফিজাঁ। তখন দেখিও বাহান্ন ইন্চি সিনা সোনায় বাঁধানো গৌরিক!

    আরও দেখিও বনবিবির মহিমা,কে বা শেরনী,কে বটে কুত্তা!kutta!


    আহা কি আনন্দ!মদন মিত্রের জামিন খারিজ হয়ে যাবার পর আবার নতুন করে সি বি আই-কে আক্রমণ শুরু করলেন মুখ্যমন্ত্রীমমতা ব্যানার্জি। বৃহস্পতিবার শহীদ মিনার ময়দানে সংখ্যালঘুদের জমায়েতেএকদিকে যেমন বি জে পি-র বিরুদ্ধে সুর চড়ালেন মুখ্যমন্ত্রী তেমনি শাহরুখ খান, মিঠুন চক্রবর্তী প্রসঙ্গ টেনে ‍‌সি বি আই-কে একহাত নিলেন তিনি। বললেন, 'শুধু ওরাই কথা বলবে।


    Memoirs of another day!

    লোকসভা নির্বাচনে একাধিক কেন্দ্রে রুপালি পর্দার তারকাদের প্রার্থী করে চমক দিয়েছিলেন তৃণমূল নেত্রী মমতা ব্যানার্জি। দলের প্রচারেও হাজির থাকছেন এক. ... ভালোবাসার টানেই সঙ্গে টালিউড :মমতা. আলোকিত ডেস্ক ... শুক্রবার বিকালে মেদিনীপুর কলেজ-কলেজিয়েট মাঠে তখন হাজার হাজার মানুষের জমায়েত। মঞ্চে হাজির তারকা খচিত মহাকাশ।



    কমরেড,ডরাইও না ক্যালানিতে,শিয়রে টুইস্টার!

    হিজাব শোভিত দিদি লুটিয়া নিছে ভোটব্যান্ক!

    কাঁদিও কমরেড মাটিতে লুটিয়াইয়া,ঠাকুর কহিলেন

    টাকা মাটি মাটি টাকা,সেই মায়া বুঝিলে না!

    জেলে হোক বা জলে সে এখন গহীন জলে,বেণী তবুও

    ভিজিল না,রক্তগঙ্গা বুঝিবে আবার কাহারে কয়!


    কহতে রহোঃমুখ্যমন্ত্রী হওয়ার পর মমতা ব্যানার্জি ওই ২১শে জুলাই নিয়ে কী করেছেন? ... সেই হলফনামা অনুসারে, ওইদিন(১৯৯৩-র ২১শে জুলাই)-এ জমায়েতে 'বহু সশস্ত্র দুষ্কৃতী(অ্যান্টিসোস্যাল) নেশাগ্রস্ত অবস্থায় জড়ো হয়েছিলো'। ... আশ্চর্য হলো মুখ্যমন্ত্রী হওয়ার পর সেই ঘটনার বিচারবিভাগীয় তদন্তের নির্দেশ দিয়েছিলেন মমতা ব্যানার্জি।


    Indian express reports:

    No one can ask Aamir to leave India, says West Bengal CM Mamata Banerjee

    West Bengal CM Mamata Banerjee extended support to Bollywood actor Aamir Khan who is at the centre of a controversy over his remarks on 'growing intolerance' in the country.

    amir khan, Mamata banerjee, aamir khan, aamir khan intolerance, aamir intolerance, aamir khan comment, aamir khan news

    "No one has the right to ask someone to leave this country or go to Pakistan. We all are citizens of this country, India," Mamata Banerjee said while addressing a rally of the minorities in Kolkata. (Source: PTI) - See more at:


    Extending her support to Bollywood star Aamir Khan by saying that it is his democratic right to say what he felt, Chief Minister Mamata Banerjee on Thursday said "no one has the right to ask someone to leave this country as this country belongs to everyone".

    "No one has the right to ask someone to leave this country or go to Pakistan. We all are citizens of this country, India," Mamata said while addressing a rally of the minorities in Kolkata.

    She also lashed out at Hindutva groups, saying that no one has the right to kill someone for just consuming beef, as the Constitution grants the right to preach to each of its citizens. "Nobody can say anything against them in this country. Whether Aamir is wrong or right, why would they decide? He has said something what he felt and what his wife told him. He has been asked to leave the country, as if the country is theirs and not ours. Who are they to ask someone to leave this country? This country belongs to everyone. This is our motherland," Mamata said.

    Mamata's comment's comes in the backdrop of countrywide criticism on Aamir Khan's recent remark where he expressed "alarm and despondency" over the rise in incidents of intolerance in the last six to eight months.

    "Kiran (his wife) and I have lived all our life in India. For the first time, she said, should we move out of India… She fears for her child, she fears about what the atmosphere around us will be," the actor said in an interaction at the Ramnath Goenka Excellence in Journalism ceremony organised by The Indian Express.

    Mamata also criticised statements made against actor Shah Rukh Khan over his comments on intolerance. "They have criticised actors like Shah Rukh Khan and Aamir Khan and musician A R Rahman. Who are they to decide what we will say or what we will eat?," the CM said.

    The CM expressed apprehensions that the powers in Delhi might unleash CBI or ED against her for her comments against intolerance and threat to communal harmony. "If you say anything against them, they will engage CBI or ED after you. Many have been threatened to give a false statement. They have threatened Mithun Chakraborty, my party MP, in such a way that he can't even talk to me. But you can't shut my mouth by engaging CBI," she claimed.

    Daring the Centre to put her in jail "if they want to", Mamata said: "I tell them to do what they want as long as they are in power of or have the courage to do so. But let not the courage become foolhardiness. I have endured many incidents but one must remember there is a limit to my endurance. Once the limit is crossed, I believe all of you will go to New Delhi with me. If they think they can put me in jail, I will stay in the jail of the masses and have some rest."

    "But you can't stop me. I don't care. Even if everybody in this country keeps mum out of fear, I will not stay mum. I will fight against injustice. We are all brothers and sisters and we all have equal rights," she added.

    Assuring the minorities that even if everyone turned away from them, she would be there for their betterment and development, the CM said, "Don't consider yourself underprivileged or that no one is there to speak on your behalf. Even if everyone falls asleep in fear, I will be awake alone and give equal security to all," she said.

    - See more at: http://indianexpress.com/article/india/india-news-india/mamata-backs-aamir-khan-over-intolerance-remark/#sthash.gF7teTVh.dpuf

    reports:

    ওয়েব ডেস্ক: জামা বানাতে গিয়ে কাপড় ছিঁড়ে ফেলেছিলেন দর্জি। ক্ষতিপূরণ পেলেন সাড়ে চার হাজার টাকা। ফেরত পাওয়া যায় এটিএম থেকে বেহাত হয়ে যাওয়া টাকা। বিমান বন্দর কর্মীদের হেনস্থায় প্লেন

    বিধানসভা ভোটে তৃণমূলের হয়ে প্রচারে নামতে রাজি নন মিঠুন বিধানসভা ভোটে তৃণমূলের হয়ে প্রচারে নামতে রাজি নন মিঠুন

    বিধানসভা ভোটে তৃণমূলের হয়ে প্রচারে নামতে রাজি নন মিঠুন চক্রবর্তী। সারদায় নাম জড়ানোর পরেই দূরত্ব বেড়েছিল দলের সঙ্গে। সময়ের সঙ্গে সঙ্গে আলগা হয়েছে সম্পর্কের বাঁধন। সূত্রের খবর, এখন আর দলের নেতদের ফোনও তোলেন না সুপার স্টার। তা হলে কী সাংসদের সঙ্গে তৃণমূলের বিচ্ছেদ আসন্ন?

    ওভারহেড তার ছেড়ায় ট্রেন চলাচল বন্ধ শিয়ালদহ দক্ষিণ শাখায়ওভারহেড তার ছেড়ায় ট্রেন চলাচল বন্ধ শিয়ালদহ দক্ষিণ শাখায়

    ওভারহেড তার ছিড়ে গিয়েছে। তাই সকাল সাড়ে পাঁচটা থেকেই বন্ধ শিয়ালদহ দক্ষিণ শাখার ট্রেন চলাচল।

    আজ সিবিআই দফতরে হাজিরা দিতে হবে শঙ্কুদেব পণ্ডাকেআজ সিবিআই দফতরে হাজিরা দিতে হবে শঙ্কুদেব পণ্ডাকে

    শিশুমৃত্যু কাণ্ডে গাফিলতি স্বীকার করে নিল হাসপাতাল কর্তৃপক্ষশিশুমৃত্যু কাণ্ডে গাফিলতি স্বীকার করে নিল হাসপাতাল কর্তৃপক্ষ

    হাসপাতালে সুবিচার না পেয়ে এবার মুখ্যমন্ত্রীর দ্বারস্থ দুই সন্তানহারা বাবা মা।  আজ সকালে মেডিক্যাল কলেজে অভিযোগ জানাতে গিয়ে চরম হেনস্থার মুখে পড়তে হয় অষ্টম-আফরিনদের।  অভিযোগ নেননি সুপার। মুখের ওপর দরজা বন্ধ করে দেন অধ্যক্ষ। বিকেলে নবান্নে মুখ্যমন্ত্রীর দফতরে গিয়ে অভিযোগ জানিয়ে আসে দুই বাবা মা। সরকারি হাসপাতালের অমানবিক মুখের সঙ্গে আগেই পরিচয় হয়েছে ওঁদের। চিকিত্সক- নার্সদের চরম গাফলতিতে ওয়ার্মারে পুড়ে গেছে প্রথম সন্তান।   

    আমির খানের পাশে মমতা, মিঠুন যোগাযোগ রাখছেন না, তাও জানালেনআমির খানের পাশে মমতা, মিঠুন যোগাযোগ রাখছেন না, তাও জানালেন

    এবার প্রকাশ্যেই আমির খানের পাশে দাঁড়ালেন মুখ্যমন্ত্রী মমতা বন্দ্যোপাধ্যায়। তাঁর বক্তব্য, আমির একটা কথা বলেছেন। সেটা তাঁর গণতান্ত্রিক অধিকার। কিন্তু সেজন্য কেউ তাঁকে দেশ ছেড়ে যেতে বলতে পারেন না। দেশ জুড়ে যখন আমির খানের মন্তব্যের জেরে দু পক্ষ হয়ে উঠেছে বলিউড, রাজনৈতিক দলগুলো, সেখানে মমতা বন্দ্যোপাধ্যায় পরিষ্কার করে জানিয়ে দিলেন, তিনি রয়েছেন আমির খানের পাশেই। পাশাপাশি মোদি বিরোধি ভাবমূর্তিও বজায় রাখলেন, আমির খানের পাশে দাঁড়িয়ে।

    দুপুরের পর থেকে ধীরে ধীরে যানজটের চেনা ছবিতে ফ্রেমবন্দি হয় কলকাতাদুপুরের পর থেকে ধীরে ধীরে যানজটের চেনা ছবিতে ফ্রেমবন্দি হয় কলকাতা

    ধর্মতলায় সিদ্দিকুল্লা ও রেজ্জাক মোল্লার সভা উপলক্ষে শহর অচল হওয়ার আশঙ্কা ছিলই। দুপুরের পর থেকে ধীরে ধীরে যানজটের চেনা ছবিতে ফ্রেমবন্দি হয় কলকাতা। জহরলাল নেহরু রোড, মেয়ো রোড, রেড রোড,  বারোটা থেকে সভা শুরু হয়েছে। বারোটার আগে পর্যঠন্ত সেভাবে জমায়েত ছিল না। জেল নেহরু রোড বারোটা থেকে দেড়টার মধ্যে ষাট শতাংশ ঢোকে। ময়দান ভরে যাওয়ার জন্য উপচে মেয়ো রোডের দিকে। রেড রোডের ধারে বাস ও ম্যাটাডোর, মেয়ো রোড বন্ধ করে দেওয়া হল সাড়ে বারোটা একটা নাগাদ।

    সিবিআইকে সামনে রেখে বিজেপিকে কড়া আক্রমণে মমতাসিবিআইকে সামনে রেখে বিজেপিকে কড়া আক্রমণে মমতা

    বিহার ভোটের পর ম-ম গন্ধ একটু কম। ফের সারদা নিয়ে শুরু হয়েছে নাড়াচাড়া। আর ঠিক তখনই সিবিআইকে সামনে রেখে বিজেপিকে কড়া আক্রমণে মমতা। কেন্দ্রীয় গোয়েন্দা সংস্থাকে চ্যালেঞ্জ ছুঁড়তে গিয়ে জড়িয়ে ফেললেন নিজেকেও। শহিদ মিনারে জমিয়তের সভা। প্রধান বক্তা মমতা বন্দ্যোপাধ্যায়। অসহিষ্ণুতা নিয়ে বিজেপির সমালোচনা করতে করতে হঠাতই তাঁর মুখে সারদায় সিবিআই।

    মিছিল মিটিং-এর জেরে দুপুরে যানজট হওয়ার সম্ভাবনা কলকাতায় মিছিল মিটিং-এর জেরে দুপুরে যানজট হওয়ার সম্ভাবনা কলকাতায়

    একগুচ্ছ মিটিং মিছিলের জেরে আজ দুপুরে মধ্য কলকাতায় ব্যাপক যানজটের সম্ভাবনা। আজ বেলা ১২টায় শহিদ মিনারে সিদিকুল্লার ডাকে সভা। সভায় হাজির থাকবেন মুখ্যমন্ত্রী। সভায় মিছিল আসবে হাওড়া, শিয়ালদা সহ শহরের বিভিন্ন প্রান্ত থেকে।

    ওয়ার্মারে পুড়ে মৃত দুই সদ্যোজাত, প্রশ্নের মুখে মেডিক্যাল কলেজের চিকিত্‍সা ব্যবস্থা ওয়ার্মারে পুড়ে মৃত দুই সদ্যোজাত, প্রশ্নের মুখে মেডিক্যাল কলেজের চিকিত্‍সা ব্যবস্থা

    সরকারি হাসপাতালের ওয়ার্মারে পুড়ে মৃত্যু হল দুই শিশুর। কারণ ওয়ার্মারের উত্তাপ যে বাড়ছে তা দেখার কেউ ছিল না। বুঝতে পেরেছিলেন দুই মা। বার বার ছুটে গিয়েছিলেন নার্স ও চিকিত্‍সকদের কাছে। কিন্তু কেউ সাড়া দেননি। হৃদয়হীন স্বাস্থ্য পরিষেবার এই ছবি কলকাতা মেডিক্যাল কলেজের। প্রথম সন্তান। অনেক যত্নে, আদরে কোলে তুলে নিয়েছিলেন উত্তরপাড়ার সোনম-অষ্টম বাগদি। স্বপ্নেও ভাবেননি এমনটা ঘটবে।

    ওয়ার্মারে পুড়ে মৃত দুই সদ্যোজাত,  প্রশ্নের মুখে মেডিক্যাল কলেজের চিকিত্‍সা ব্যবস্থা  ওয়ার্মারে পুড়ে মৃত দুই সদ্যোজাত, প্রশ্নের মুখে মেডিক্যাল কলেজের চিকিত্‍সা ব্যবস্থা

    ফের সরকারি হাসপাতালে চূড়ান্ত গাফিলতি। মেডিক্যাল কলেজে ওয়ার্মারে পুড়ে মৃত্যু হল দুই সদ্যোজাতের। হুঁশ হল না চিকিত্সক থেকে নার্স কারোরই। উল্টে ঘটনা ধামাচাপা দেওয়ার চেষ্টা কর্তৃপক্ষের। প্রশ্নের মুখে সরকারি হাসপাতালের চিকিত্‍সা ব্যবস্থা।

    রাতের কলকাতায় একা রেখে যাবেন না নিজের গাড়ি, চাকায় পড়তে পারে বেড়ি রাতের কলকাতায় একা রেখে যাবেন না নিজের গাড়ি, চাকায় পড়তে পারে বেড়ি

    রাতের শহরে খোলা রাস্তায় যাঁরা গাড়ি রাখেন এ বার কিন্তু তাঁদের সাবধান হওয়ার সময় এসেছে। কারণ, চাকায় বেড়ি পরানোর উদ্যোগ নিয়েছে কলকাতা পুরসভা।

    বই মেলায় বন্ধ &#039;রকবাজি&#039;বই মেলায় বন্ধ 'রকবাজি'

    বইমেলায় আর রক ব্যান্ডের গান নয়। শুধু রক নয়, কোনও গানের ব্যান্ডকেই গান গাওয়ার জন্য আর আমন্ত্রন জানানো হবে না বইমেলায়। এমনই সিদ্ধান্ত নিল বইমেলা কর্তৃপক্ষ। আগামী বছরের ২৫শে জানুয়ারি উদ্বোধন হচ্ছে আগামী বছরের বইমেলার।  

    সংখ্যালঘু ভোটব্যাঙ্কে ভাঙন, ড্যামেজ কন্ট্রোলে তৎপর মুখ্যমন্ত্রী সংখ্যালঘু ভোটব্যাঙ্কে ভাঙন, ড্যামেজ কন্ট্রোলে তৎপর মুখ্যমন্ত্রী

    শহিদ মিনারে সিদ্দিকুল্লার সভা। আমন্ত্রিত মুখ্যমন্ত্রী মমতা বন্দ্যোপাধ্যায়। অথচ, গতবছর এই শহিদ মিনারেই সভা করেছিলেন সিদ্দিকুল্লা। সেদিন নিশানায় ছিলেন মুখ্যমন্ত্রী। তাহলে আচমকা কেন ভোল বদল? প্রশ্ন সংখ্যালঘুদের অন্দরেই।   

    সারদার পর এবার রোজভ্যালিতেও মদন মিত্রের নাম   সারদার পর এবার রোজভ্যালিতেও মদন মিত্রের নাম

    সারদার পর এবার রোজভ্যালিতেও সরাসরি নাম জড়াল মদন মিত্রে।  রোজভ্যালি কর্তার সঙ্গে একাধিক বৈঠক মদন মিত্রের, সেই তথ্যের সূত্র ধরে আগামী মাসেই তাঁকে ভিনরাজ্যে নিয়ে গিয়ে জেরা করতে চায় সিবিআই । আর্থিক কেলেঙ্কারির জাল কতদূর ছড়িয়ে তা জানতে  অসম ও ওড়িশায় নিয়ে গিয়ে জেরার পরিকল্পনা গোয়েন্দাদের। রোজভ্যালিকর্তা গৌতম কুন্ডুর সঙ্গে মুখোমুখি বসিয়েও জেরার ছক।বাংলায় যথেষ্ট প্রভাবশালী প্রাক্তন মন্ত্রী। সেজন্যেই কি অন্য রাজ্যে নিয়ে গিয়ে তাঁকে জেরা করতে চায় সিবিআই? উঠছে সেই প্রশ্নও।

    পাশে থাকার বার্তা দিয়ে কলকাতায় আইফেল টাওয়ারপাশে থাকার বার্তা দিয়ে কলকাতায় আইফেল টাওয়ার

    এটাই কলকাতা। লন্ডন তো হবেই কিন্তু প্যারিস কেন বাদ যাবে? ইকো পার্কে এবার নির্মিত হতে চলেছে প্যারিসের আইফেল টাওয়ারের রেপলিকা। পৃথিবীর সপ্তম আশ্চর্যের মধ্যে একটি হল আইফেল টাওয়ার। পৃথিবীর এই বিরলতম ইতিহাসকে সম্মান জানাতে এবং তার সঙ্গে প্যারিসে আইসিস হামলার শিকার সমস্ত মানুষকে শ্রদ্ধা জ্ঞাপনের উদ্দেশ্যেই অভিনব উদ্যোগ গ্রহন করেছে পশ্চিমবঙ্গ সরকার।



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    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3Ncc1fomGuY&feature=youtu.be


    पिया गये रंगून... Twelfth Night!Comedy theme song this time in India Malvolioes would not spare anyone,anything!

    America roots in Puritanism and so we become Puritan!

    #Ambedkar#Constitution#Parliament Live #Patanga #Shamshad Begum#Rangoon#Shakespeare#Queen Elizabeth#England#Puritan Gift#History Puritan# Agenda#Occupy Global Order#Institutional Fascism#Intolerance#Indian Politics#Colonial Roots

    Palash Biswas

    1. Mere Piya Gaye Rangoon - Shamshad Begum, C ... - YouTube

    2. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pumMzP-gbP4

    3. Artists: Shamshad Begum, C. Ramchandra

    4. Movie: Patanga

    5. Twelfth Night

    6. Play by William Shakespeare

    7. Twelfth Night, or What You Will is a comedy by William Shakespeare, believed to have been written around 1601–02 as a Twelfth Night's entertainment for the close of the Christmas season.Wikipedia

    8. First performance: February 2, 1602

    9. Playwright: William Shakespeare

    10. Creator: William Shakespeare

    11. Original language: English

    12. Characters: Viola, Malvolio, Duke Orsino,Countess Olivia, Feste, more

    13. Adaptations: She's the Man (2006), more


    Political scenario and monopolistic aggression against humanity and nature might be the best elements of comedy as well as tragedy.Comedy Because it blasts the purity as well as the Puritan.Tragedy because the katharsis resembles in resultant holocaust and bloodshed.Hence I am discussing Shakespearean comedy Twelfth Night!


    The reign of Elizabeth I of England, from 1558 to 1603, saw the rise of the Puritan movement in England, its clash with the authorities of the Church of England, and its temporarily effective suppression in the 1590s by severe judicial means.Twelfth Night is very important in this context.


    Twelfth Night relies on the devices of dramatic irony and twinning to capture the attention of the audience. The comedy is unusual in its use of melancholic music .quite contradictory to Indian music and musicality!


    We face the same dramatic irony of Twelfth Night, seen through gender reversal, disguise, and mistaken identity, exposes each character's intolerance, daydreaming and ambitious involvement to create chaos and anarchy!


    Thus, British history repeats itself  in a democracy achieved from the British Raj in India!The Puritans have got the helms and they end in institutional fascism in disguise of religious nationalism and we see the gender reversal in ideological melody and the mistaken identities invoked play the havoc on freedom, democracy!It is total reformist degeneration!Which happens to be racist at the same time.


    Then,the Puritans were a group of English Reformed Protestants in the 16th and 17th centuries who sought to purify the Church of England from all Roman Catholic practices, maintaining that the Church of England was only partially reformed.


    Puritans were also accused of being power hungry and Malvolio's secret social ambitions fit the bill. Historians have noted that America took form in the womb of England. This truth is overlooked but extremely important. When we look deeper into the body of English history in the 1500's we can certainly make out within it the embryo of a new breed of people. At that time a certain company of Christian activists were beginning to stir and kick within the English mother country. These were the people who sparked the English Reformation. As a result of their zeal and their commitment to reform and to 'purify' the Church of England they would come to be known as the 'Puritans'.


    It is something like the agenda of OCCUPY the Global Order!Thus, we catch Malvolio daydreaming about marrying Countess Olivia, like daydreaming to make the Nation free from other religion and race.It is called love and pasiion for the religion instead of lady Olivia!


    Lest we should learn that Malvolio  day dream to change everything mythically has less to do with love of religion  than it has to do with his aspirations for social,political economic power misusing identities and faith of the common masses. It is the Comedy!


    What does Malvolio's power fantasy look like?


    Just to rename and reshape all the places of worship opting for ethnic cleansing and genocide culture launching and relaunching holocaust and bloodshed time and again! It is not the story of the comedy Twelfth Night which involves religious ritual!In UK,people used to have parties on Twelfth Night and it was traditional to play practical jokes on your friends and neighbours. These included tricks such as hiding live birds in an empty pie case, so that they flew away when your startled guests cut open the crusts (as in the nursery rhyme "Sing A Song of Sixpence" goes, "…the pie was opened and the birds began to sing".


    Twelfth Night Ritual– also known as Wassail Eve. Traditionally a time when a 'Twelfth Night' cake is baked and a time for Wassailing. Wassailing is the Celtic custom of sharing baked apples and cider. The first Celtic festival of the year, customary rededications are affirmed for one's spiritual path.


    Well, it involves wearing fancy clothes, bossing around the servants, and playing moral cop to Sir Toby's bad guy. Malvolio seems to be punished as much for his moral haughtiness as for his social climbing fantasies, which makes him central to the play's concern with the dangers of social ambition.


    We have the same sort of Puritans creating the reformist tsunami as they have to purify everything and never hesitate to shed blood.


    It is quite interesting that Malvolio is the steward (head servant) to Lady Oliviathe romantic lead.Then Malvolio pose as puritan as we witness Puritan tsunami these days which seems to be rather a Fatwa Tsunami against criticism of Puritan ideology and politics mixed remixed with Free Market Economy,institutional fascism and blind religious nationalism.London witnessed  this Puritan Malvolio brotherhood making a chaos in English life just after Twelfth Night was played and theatres were shut down.


    Elizabethan era is described as Golden age in British History as the rewritten history of India might add the most golden era as this neoliberal age of institutional fascism which claims to be pure and despises everything which is not in accordance their ethics,faith and moral ,ideals.Thus,freedom of expression banned and intensive hate campaign kills the love.This puritan culture should be treated as the comedy of tragedy which is all about Twelfth Night by Shakespeare.


    Indian people might be personified as the lady love who sings for the absent Piya;Piya gaye Rangoon wahan se kiya telephoon.And it is not Telephoon,it is LIVE Telecast as well as Live stream flowing into social networking captured by Puritans.


    Who have nothing against Class Caste rule or political,economic and religious authorities rather they do everything to sustain the Manusmriti Rule.

    Here you are!

    Ambedkar reincarnated as Vishnu Bhagawan and Constitution day celebrated officially to kill the constitution itself.


    It seems rather eternal truth about the business friendly governance as the FDI leadership rules the masses from this or that foreign land and Khabardar,you dare not criticize!


    I have not to focus on incidents and examples.We do enjoy the comedy as well as the tragedy with blind faith and keep mum,Those who speak,the lot of fools visit and revisit the most vocal scenario of exclusion and execution as well.We already know the names involved.


    Back to Twelfth Night,Malvolio remains  a big time hater and criticizes just about everything – Toby's partying lifestyle, Feste's licensed fooling, and all other forms of fun. His party-pooper ways and constant tattle-telling place a big giant bulls-eye on his back – he's just asking for trouble. And that's exactly what he gets when he's duped into behaving like a "madman" to win the favor of Lady Olivia.


    Back to Puritan movement:In accordance to Wiki in 1553, Edward VI died and his Catholic half-sister assumed the throne as Mary I of England. Mary sought to end the English Reformation and restore the Church of England to full communion with the Church of Rome, and instituted repression later known as the Marian Persecutions. It saw Thomas Cranmer and other prominent English Protestantsburned at the stake.

    John Knox (c.1510–1572), leader of Protestant exiles inFrankfurt.

    Roughly 800 English Protestants (the Marian exiles) left the country for religious reasons. Unwelcome in German Lutheran territories, they established English Protestant congregations in Emden, Wesel, Frankfurt, Strasbourg, Zurich, Basel,Geneva, and Aarau. Most of these churches continued to follow the 1552 Book of Common Prayer, but the Frankfurt congregation, under the leadership of John Knoxused a liturgy drawn up by Knox, known as the Book of Common Order, according to which the clergy did not wear vestments. The Frankfurt congregation was at odds with other English Marian exiles.

    In 1558, Queen Mary died, and her half-sister, Elizabeth became Queen of England. Elizabeth had been raised as a Protestant in the household of Catherine Parr. During the first year of Elizabeth's reign many of the Marian exiles returned to England. A compromise religious position established in 1559 is now known as the Elizabethan Religious Settlement. It attempted to make England Protestant without totally alienating the portion of the population that had supported Catholicism under Mary. The settlement was consolidated in 1563. An interim position of 11 articles of faith operated for a few years.[1]

    The Church of England under Elizabeth was broadly Reformed in nature: Elizabeth's first Archbishop of Canterbury,Matthew Parker had been the executor of Martin Bucer's will, and his replacement, Edmund Grindal had carried the coffin at Bucer's funeral. While the Elizabethan Settlement proved generally acceptable, there remained minorities who were dissatisfied with the state of the Church of England. In particular cry for "further reform" in the 1560s was the basis of what is now known as the Puritan Movement.



    Maria says that "sometimes he is a kind of puritan" (2.3.139), which aligns Malvolio with the religious group despised for its opposition to the theater, winter festivals, and other forms of entertainment (just about everything Twelfth Night celebrates). Malvolio's not a Puritan, per se, but the fact that the play aligns him with the sect and goes out of its way to stage his humiliation makes Malvolio's disgrace an important part of the play's rebellious, nose-thumbing spirit.


    Twelfth Night

    Shakespeare homepage | Twelfth Night | Act 2, Scene 3

    SCENE III. OLIVIA's house.

    Enter SIR TOBY BELCH and SIR ANDREW

    SIR TOBY BELCH

    Approach, Sir Andrew: not to be abed after

    midnight is to be up betimes; and 'diluculo

    surgere,' thou know'st,--

    SIR ANDREW

    Nay, my troth, I know not: but I know, to be up

    late is to be up late.

    SIR TOBY BELCH

    A false conclusion: I hate it as an unfilled can.

    To be up after midnight and to go to bed then, is

    early: so that to go to bed after midnight is to go

    to bed betimes. Does not our life consist of the

    four elements?

    SIR ANDREW

    Faith, so they say; but I think it rather consists

    of eating and drinking.

    SIR TOBY BELCH

    Thou'rt a scholar; let us therefore eat and drink.

    Marian, I say! a stoup of wine!

    Enter Clown

    SIR ANDREW

    Here comes the fool, i' faith.

    Clown

    How now, my hearts! did you never see the picture

    of 'we three'?

    SIR TOBY BELCH

    Welcome, ass. Now let's have a catch.

    SIR ANDREW

    By my troth, the fool has an excellent breast. I

    had rather than forty shillings I had such a leg,

    and so sweet a breath to sing, as the fool has. In

    sooth, thou wast in very gracious fooling last

    night, when thou spokest of Pigrogromitus, of the

    Vapians passing the equinoctial of Queubus: 'twas

    very good, i' faith. I sent thee sixpence for thy

    leman: hadst it?

    Clown

    I did impeticos thy gratillity; for Malvolio's nose

    is no whipstock: my lady has a white hand, and the

    Myrmidons are no bottle-ale houses.

    SIR ANDREW

    Excellent! why, this is the best fooling, when all

    is done. Now, a song.

    SIR TOBY BELCH

    Come on; there is sixpence for you: let's have a song.

    SIR ANDREW

    There's a testril of me too: if one knight give a--

    Clown

    Would you have a love-song, or a song of good life?

    SIR TOBY BELCH

    A love-song, a love-song.

    SIR ANDREW

    Ay, ay: I care not for good life.

    Clown

    [Sings]

    O mistress mine, where are you roaming?

    O, stay and hear; your true love's coming,

    That can sing both high and low:

    Trip no further, pretty sweeting;

    Journeys end in lovers meeting,

    Every wise man's son doth know.

    SIR ANDREW

    Excellent good, i' faith.

    SIR TOBY BELCH

    Good, good.

    Clown

    [Sings]

    What is love? 'tis not hereafter;

    Present mirth hath present laughter;

    What's to come is still unsure:

    In delay there lies no plenty;

    Then come kiss me, sweet and twenty,

    Youth's a stuff will not endure.

    SIR ANDREW

    A mellifluous voice, as I am true knight.

    SIR TOBY BELCH

    A contagious breath.

    SIR ANDREW

    Very sweet and contagious, i' faith.

    SIR TOBY BELCH

    To hear by the nose, it is dulcet in contagion.

    But shall we make the welkin dance indeed? shall we

    rouse the night-owl in a catch that will draw three

    souls out of one weaver? shall we do that?

    SIR ANDREW

    An you love me, let's do't: I am dog at a catch.

    Clown

    By'r lady, sir, and some dogs will catch well.

    SIR ANDREW

    Most certain. Let our catch be, 'Thou knave.'

    Clown

    'Hold thy peace, thou knave,' knight? I shall be

    constrained in't to call thee knave, knight.

    SIR ANDREW

    'Tis not the first time I have constrained one to

    call me knave. Begin, fool: it begins 'Hold thy peace.'

    Clown

    I shall never begin if I hold my peace.

    SIR ANDREW

    Good, i' faith. Come, begin.

    Catch sung

    Enter MARIA

    MARIA

    What a caterwauling do you keep here! If my lady

    have not called up her steward Malvolio and bid him

    turn you out of doors, never trust me.

    SIR TOBY BELCH

    My lady's a Cataian, we are politicians, Malvolio's

    a Peg-a-Ramsey, and 'Three merry men be we.' Am not

    I consanguineous? am I not of her blood?

    Tillyvally. Lady!

    Sings

    'There dwelt a man in Babylon, lady, lady!'

    Clown

    Beshrew me, the knight's in admirable fooling.

    SIR ANDREW

    Ay, he does well enough if he be disposed, and so do

    I too: he does it with a better grace, but I do it

    more natural.

    SIR TOBY BELCH

    [Sings] 'O, the twelfth day of December,'--

    MARIA

    For the love o' God, peace!

    Enter MALVOLIO

    MALVOLIO

    My masters, are you mad? or what are you? Have ye

    no wit, manners, nor honesty, but to gabble like

    tinkers at this time of night? Do ye make an

    alehouse of my lady's house, that ye squeak out your

    coziers' catches without any mitigation or remorse

    of voice? Is there no respect of place, persons, nor

    time in you?

    SIR TOBY BELCH

    We did keep time, sir, in our catches. Sneck up!

    MALVOLIO

    Sir Toby, I must be round with you. My lady bade me

    tell you, that, though she harbours you as her

    kinsman, she's nothing allied to your disorders. If

    you can separate yourself and your misdemeanors, you

    are welcome to the house; if not, an it would please

    you to take leave of her, she is very willing to bid

    you farewell.

    SIR TOBY BELCH

    'Farewell, dear heart, since I must needs be gone.'

    MARIA

    Nay, good Sir Toby.

    Clown

    'His eyes do show his days are almost done.'

    MALVOLIO

    Is't even so?

    SIR TOBY BELCH

    'But I will never die.'

    Clown

    Sir Toby, there you lie.

    MALVOLIO

    This is much credit to you.

    SIR TOBY BELCH

    'Shall I bid him go?'

    Clown

    'What an if you do?'

    SIR TOBY BELCH

    'Shall I bid him go, and spare not?'

    Clown

    'O no, no, no, no, you dare not.'

    SIR TOBY BELCH

    Out o' tune, sir: ye lie. Art any more than a

    steward? Dost thou think, because thou art

    virtuous, there shall be no more cakes and ale?

    Clown

    Yes, by Saint Anne, and ginger shall be hot i' the

    mouth too.

    SIR TOBY BELCH

    Thou'rt i' the right. Go, sir, rub your chain with

    crumbs. A stoup of wine, Maria!

    MALVOLIO

    Mistress Mary, if you prized my lady's favour at any

    thing more than contempt, you would not give means

    for this uncivil rule: she shall know of it, by this hand.

    Exit

    MARIA

    Go shake your ears.

    SIR ANDREW

    'Twere as good a deed as to drink when a man's

    a-hungry, to challenge him the field, and then to

    break promise with him and make a fool of him.

    SIR TOBY BELCH

    Do't, knight: I'll write thee a challenge: or I'll

    deliver thy indignation to him by word of mouth.

    MARIA

    Sweet Sir Toby, be patient for tonight: since the

    youth of the count's was today with thy lady, she is

    much out of quiet. For Monsieur Malvolio, let me

    alone with him: if I do not gull him into a

    nayword, and make him a common recreation, do not

    think I have wit enough to lie straight in my bed:

    I know I can do it.

    SIR TOBY BELCH

    Possess us, possess us; tell us something of him.

    MARIA

    Marry, sir, sometimes he is a kind of puritan.

    SIR ANDREW

    O, if I thought that I'ld beat him like a dog!

    SIR TOBY BELCH

    What, for being a puritan? thy exquisite reason,

    dear knight?

    SIR ANDREW

    I have no exquisite reason for't, but I have reason

    good enough.

    MARIA

    The devil a puritan that he is, or any thing

    constantly, but a time-pleaser; an affectioned ass,

    that cons state without book and utters it by great

    swarths: the best persuaded of himself, so

    crammed, as he thinks, with excellencies, that it is

    his grounds of faith that all that look on him love

    him; and on that vice in him will my revenge find

    notable cause to work.

    SIR TOBY BELCH

    What wilt thou do?

    MARIA

    I will drop in his way some obscure epistles of

    love; wherein, by the colour of his beard, the shape

    of his leg, the manner of his gait, the expressure

    of his eye, forehead, and complexion, he shall find

    himself most feelingly personated. I can write very

    like my lady your niece: on a forgotten matter we

    can hardly make distinction of our hands.

    SIR TOBY BELCH

    Excellent! I smell a device.

    SIR ANDREW

    I have't in my nose too.

    SIR TOBY BELCH

    He shall think, by the letters that thou wilt drop,

    that they come from my niece, and that she's in

    love with him.

    MARIA

    My purpose is, indeed, a horse of that colour.

    SIR ANDREW

    And your horse now would make him an ass.

    MARIA

    Ass, I doubt not.

    SIR ANDREW

    O, 'twill be admirable!

    MARIA

    Sport royal, I warrant you: I know my physic will

    work with him. I will plant you two, and let the

    fool make a third, where he shall find the letter:

    observe his construction of it. For this night, to

    bed, and dream on the event. Farewell.

    Exit

    SIR TOBY BELCH

    Good night, Penthesilea.

    SIR ANDREW

    Before me, she's a good wench.

    SIR TOBY BELCH

    She's a beagle, true-bred, and one that adores me:

    what o' that?

    SIR ANDREW

    I was adored once too.

    SIR TOBY BELCH

    Let's to bed, knight. Thou hadst need send for

    more money.

    SIR ANDREW

    If I cannot recover your niece, I am a foul way out.

    SIR TOBY BELCH

    Send for money, knight: if thou hast her not i'

    the end, call me cut.

    SIR ANDREW

    If I do not, never trust me, take it how you will.

    SIR TOBY BELCH

    Come, come, I'll go burn some sack; 'tis too late

    to go to bed now: come, knight; come, knight.

    Exeunt



    Twelfth Night

    Shakespeare homepage | Twelfth Night | Act 2, Scene 5

    SCENE V. OLIVIA's garden.

    Enter SIR TOBY BELCH, SIR ANDREW, and FABIAN

    SIR TOBY BELCH

    Come thy ways, Signior Fabian.

    FABIAN

    Nay, I'll come: if I lose a scruple of this sport,

    let me be boiled to death with melancholy.

    SIR TOBY BELCH

    Wouldst thou not be glad to have the niggardly

    rascally sheep-biter come by some notable shame?

    FABIAN

    I would exult, man: you know, he brought me out o'

    favour with my lady about a bear-baiting here.

    SIR TOBY BELCH

    To anger him we'll have the bear again; and we will

    fool him black and blue: shall we not, Sir Andrew?

    SIR ANDREW

    An we do not, it is pity of our lives.

    SIR TOBY BELCH

    Here comes the little villain.

    Enter MARIA

    How now, my metal of India!

    MARIA

    Get ye all three into the box-tree: Malvolio's

    coming down this walk: he has been yonder i' the

    sun practising behavior to his own shadow this half

    hour: observe him, for the love of mockery; for I

    know this letter will make a contemplative idiot of

    him. Close, in the name of jesting! Lie thou there,

    Throws down a letter

    for here comes the trout that must be caught with tickling.

    Exit

    Enter MALVOLIO

    MALVOLIO

    'Tis but fortune; all is fortune. Maria once told

    me she did affect me: and I have heard herself come

    thus near, that, should she fancy, it should be one

    of my complexion. Besides, she uses me with a more

    exalted respect than any one else that follows her.

    What should I think on't?

    SIR TOBY BELCH

    Here's an overweening rogue!

    FABIAN

    O, peace! Contemplation makes a rare turkey-cock

    of him: how he jets under his advanced plumes!

    SIR ANDREW

    'Slight, I could so beat the rogue!

    SIR TOBY BELCH

    Peace, I say.

    MALVOLIO

    To be Count Malvolio!

    SIR TOBY BELCH

    Ah, rogue!

    SIR ANDREW

    Pistol him, pistol him.

    SIR TOBY BELCH

    Peace, peace!

    MALVOLIO

    There is example for't; the lady of the Strachy

    married the yeoman of the wardrobe.

    SIR ANDREW

    Fie on him, Jezebel!

    FABIAN

    O, peace! now he's deeply in: look how

    imagination blows him.

    MALVOLIO

    Having been three months married to her, sitting in

    my state,--

    SIR TOBY BELCH

    O, for a stone-bow, to hit him in the eye!

    MALVOLIO

    Calling my officers about me, in my branched velvet

    gown; having come from a day-bed, where I have left

    Olivia sleeping,--

    SIR TOBY BELCH

    Fire and brimstone!

    FABIAN

    O, peace, peace!

    MALVOLIO

    And then to have the humour of state; and after a

    demure travel of regard, telling them I know my

    place as I would they should do theirs, to for my

    kinsman Toby,--

    SIR TOBY BELCH

    Bolts and shackles!

    FABIAN

    O peace, peace, peace! now, now.

    MALVOLIO

    Seven of my people, with an obedient start, make

    out for him: I frown the while; and perchance wind

    up watch, or play with my--some rich jewel. Toby

    approaches; courtesies there to me,--

    SIR TOBY BELCH

    Shall this fellow live?

    FABIAN

    Though our silence be drawn from us with cars, yet peace.

    MALVOLIO

    I extend my hand to him thus, quenching my familiar

    smile with an austere regard of control,--

    SIR TOBY BELCH

    And does not Toby take you a blow o' the lips then?

    MALVOLIO

    Saying, 'Cousin Toby, my fortunes having cast me on

    your niece give me this prerogative of speech,'--

    SIR TOBY BELCH

    What, what?

    MALVOLIO

    'You must amend your drunkenness.'

    SIR TOBY BELCH

    Out, scab!

    FABIAN

    Nay, patience, or we break the sinews of our plot.

    MALVOLIO

    'Besides, you waste the treasure of your time with

    a foolish knight,'--

    SIR ANDREW

    That's me, I warrant you.

    MALVOLIO

    'One Sir Andrew,'--

    SIR ANDREW

    I knew 'twas I; for many do call me fool.

    MALVOLIO

    What employment have we here?

    Taking up the letter

    FABIAN

    Now is the woodcock near the gin.

    SIR TOBY BELCH

    O, peace! and the spirit of humour intimate reading

    aloud to him!

    MALVOLIO

    By my life, this is my lady's hand these be her

    very C's, her U's and her T's and thus makes she her

    great P's. It is, in contempt of question, her hand.

    SIR ANDREW

    Her C's, her U's and her T's: why that?

    MALVOLIO

    [Reads] 'To the unknown beloved, this, and my good

    wishes:'--her very phrases! By your leave, wax.

    Soft! and the impressure her Lucrece, with which she

    uses to seal: 'tis my lady. To whom should this be?

    FABIAN

    This wins him, liver and all.

    MALVOLIO

    [Reads]

    Jove knows I love: But who?

    Lips, do not move;

    No man must know.

    'No man must know.' What follows? the numbers

    altered! 'No man must know:' if this should be

    thee, Malvolio?

    SIR TOBY BELCH

    Marry, hang thee, brock!

    MALVOLIO

    [Reads]

    I may command where I adore;

    But silence, like a Lucrece knife,

    With bloodless stroke my heart doth gore:

    M, O, A, I, doth sway my life.

    FABIAN

    A fustian riddle!

    SIR TOBY BELCH

    Excellent wench, say I.

    MALVOLIO

    'M, O, A, I, doth sway my life.' Nay, but first, let

    me see, let me see, let me see.

    FABIAN

    What dish o' poison has she dressed him!

    SIR TOBY BELCH

    And with what wing the staniel cheques at it!

    MALVOLIO

    'I may command where I adore.' Why, she may command

    me: I serve her; she is my lady. Why, this is

    evident to any formal capacity; there is no

    obstruction in this: and the end,--what should

    that alphabetical position portend? If I could make

    that resemble something in me,--Softly! M, O, A,

    I,--

    SIR TOBY BELCH

    O, ay, make up that: he is now at a cold scent.

    FABIAN

    Sowter will cry upon't for all this, though it be as

    rank as a fox.

    MALVOLIO

    M,--Malvolio; M,--why, that begins my name.

    FABIAN

    Did not I say he would work it out? the cur is

    excellent at faults.

    MALVOLIO

    M,--but then there is no consonancy in the sequel;

    that suffers under probation A should follow but O does.

    FABIAN

    And O shall end, I hope.

    SIR TOBY BELCH

    Ay, or I'll cudgel him, and make him cry O!

    MALVOLIO

    And then I comes behind.

    FABIAN

    Ay, an you had any eye behind you, you might see

    more detraction at your heels than fortunes before

    you.

    MALVOLIO

    M, O, A, I; this simulation is not as the former: and

    yet, to crush this a little, it would bow to me, for

    every one of these letters are in my name. Soft!

    here follows prose.

    Reads

    'If this fall into thy hand, revolve. In my stars I

    am above thee; but be not afraid of greatness: some

    are born great, some achieve greatness, and some

    have greatness thrust upon 'em. Thy Fates open

    their hands; let thy blood and spirit embrace them;

    and, to inure thyself to what thou art like to be,

    cast thy humble slough and appear fresh. Be

    opposite with a kinsman, surly with servants; let

    thy tongue tang arguments of state; put thyself into

    the trick of singularity: she thus advises thee

    that sighs for thee. Remember who commended thy

    yellow stockings, and wished to see thee ever

    cross-gartered: I say, remember. Go to, thou art

    made, if thou desirest to be so; if not, let me see

    thee a steward still, the fellow of servants, and

    not worthy to touch Fortune's fingers. Farewell.

    She that would alter services with thee,

    THE FORTUNATE-UNHAPPY.'

    Daylight and champaign discovers not more: this is

    open. I will be proud, I will read politic authors,

    I will baffle Sir Toby, I will wash off gross

    acquaintance, I will be point-devise the very man.

    I do not now fool myself, to let imagination jade

    me; for every reason excites to this, that my lady

    loves me. She did commend my yellow stockings of

    late, she did praise my leg being cross-gartered;

    and in this she manifests herself to my love, and

    with a kind of injunction drives me to these habits

    of her liking. I thank my stars I am happy. I will

    be strange, stout, in yellow stockings, and

    cross-gartered, even with the swiftness of putting

    on. Jove and my stars be praised! Here is yet a

    postscript.

    Reads

    'Thou canst not choose but know who I am. If thou

    entertainest my love, let it appear in thy smiling;

    thy smiles become thee well; therefore in my

    presence still smile, dear my sweet, I prithee.'

    Jove, I thank thee: I will smile; I will do

    everything that thou wilt have me.

    Exit

    FABIAN

    I will not give my part of this sport for a pension

    of thousands to be paid from the Sophy.

    SIR TOBY BELCH

    I could marry this wench for this device.

    SIR ANDREW

    So could I too.

    SIR TOBY BELCH

    And ask no other dowry with her but such another jest.

    SIR ANDREW

    Nor I neither.

    FABIAN

    Here comes my noble gull-catcher.

    Re-enter MARIA

    SIR TOBY BELCH

    Wilt thou set thy foot o' my neck?

    SIR ANDREW

    Or o' mine either?

    SIR TOBY BELCH

    Shall I play my freedom at traytrip, and become thy

    bond-slave?

    SIR ANDREW

    I' faith, or I either?

    SIR TOBY BELCH

    Why, thou hast put him in such a dream, that when

    the image of it leaves him he must run mad.

    MARIA

    Nay, but say true; does it work upon him?

    SIR TOBY BELCH

    Like aqua-vitae with a midwife.

    MARIA

    If you will then see the fruits of the sport, mark

    his first approach before my lady: he will come to

    her in yellow stockings, and 'tis a colour she

    abhors, and cross-gartered, a fashion she detests;

    and he will smile upon her, which will now be so

    unsuitable to her disposition, being addicted to a

    melancholy as she is, that it cannot but turn him

    into a notable contempt. If you will see it, follow

    me.

    SIR TOBY BELCH

    To the gates of Tartar, thou most excellent devil of wit!

    SIR ANDREW

    I'll make one too.

    Exeunt

    ENGLAND IN THE 16TH AND 17TH CENTURIES

    [Revised and partly edited, January 20, 2004, September 17, 2008 and September 14, 2012]

    17th century England was troubled by the same kinds of problems as the rest of Europe--political , economic, and social tension made worse by religious division.  The English parliament, which should have been an instrument for peaceful change, often only made things worse.  Even competent rulers and officials had trouble governing the country.  But surprisingly enough, by the end of the 17th century, the English had found a lasting solution to the problems that confronted them.

    I.  English problems

    England tended to have the same kind of economic problems as the rest of Europe (rapid inflation brought on by the influx of New World gold, loss of real wages, etc.).  A particular problem for English rulers was that royal revenue tended to be insufficient to meet new demands placed on them  Also, changes in agriculture created problems.  English agricultural had once been dominated by farm types growing grain on land owned by others.  The landowners discovered they could make more money by enclosing their land and devoting it raising sheep.  But this was less labor intensive, and there was no longer a living on the farm for many, many Englishmen.  

    Economic problems/changes led to social tension.  Those forced off the farms tended to go to the towns and cities to look for work, and the large numbers of people competing for jobs put further downward pressure on wages.  Naturally enough, working-class people were unhappy, and, while unable to lead any kind of movement for change, they might well provide cannon-fodder for more priviliged people who might be trying to stir things up. The more privileged types had the same grievances as their equivalents in the rest of Europe.  A rising middle class wanted more say in government, while nobles might want to gain back some of their lost privileges.

    Economic and social tension, then meant political tension as well, and there is always some potential for civil war in England throught this period.  In addition, there was increased potential for war with other countries. Friction over trade/colonies could easily lead to war with France, the Netherlands, or Spain at any time in this period.  Even closer to home, Scotland and Ireland were potentially troublesome, and obvious allies to any continental enemy England might have to face.

    The potential for religious trouble was also great.  In his break from the Catholic church, Henry VIII had created a very unstable religious situation.  Henry had no doctrinal problems with Catholicism: he separated from the Roman church only so he could get a divorce from his wife Catherine.  But the structrual changes he made to the English church (now called the Anglican church or the Church of England or--in this country--Episcopalians) meant that the ruler of England now also was head of the church, and so every time the ruler changed, there might be a major change in religion. After Henry's death, Edward (his son) was dominated by advisors who pushed England toward Calvinism. When Edward died, Mary (Henry's daughter by the divorced Catherine) shifted religious policy toward Catholicism. When Mary died, Elizabeth (another of Henry's daughters) had no patience with either extreme.  The result of Henry's changes: an Anglican/Catholic/Puritan split that eventually led to religious civil war.

    However, during the last years of the 16th century, the problems weren't so bad because England had particularly able ruler, one of finest in English history,

    Elizabeth I (1558-1603).  Elizabeth had lots of things going for her:

    • She was a frugal monarchy, and, as a result, could protect her popularity by *not* raising taxes.

    • She was a great diplomat (In class, I discuss her use of the promise of marriage  to reduce potential problems, speculating that she may have delayed the 1588 Armada by hinting at the possibility of marriage to King Philip).

    • She was an excellent public speaker, and, as a result, could unite her people, giving them a clear common vision (cf.,  Elizabeth's Golden Speechand these selected speeches from the Internet Modern History Sourcebook).  [In class, I note her improvised speech to a rather rude Polish Ambassador that Cecil considered  the best speech he had ever heard--and given in Latin!]

    • She encouraged exploration (sending out people like Drake and Raleigh), and, long term, England would greatly benefit from colonies and increased trade.

    • Most important, Elizabeth managed to keep relgious troubles to a mimium with her policy of  latitudinarianism, a policy that included as many people as possible within church of England, and persecuted any hold outs on either Catholic or Puritan side.

    All this meant  that, while other European countries went through periods of religious civil war, England has a (relative) Golden Age--an age the produceds figures like Shakespeare.

    One problem remained: would Elizabeth have a decent successor?  Elizabeth never married and had no child. Her advisors partly solved the succession problem by preparing for a transfer of the crown to a distant cousin of Elizabeth (1st cousin twice removed, I believe), the Scottish king (James VI when we think of him as a Scottish monarch) who now becomes the first of our Stuart monarchs of England, James I (when we think of him as an English king).  Now how's that for potentially confusing!

    James I [James VI of Scotland] (1603-1625)

    James seemed in some ways ideal for continuing Elizabeth's program.  He continued exploration and colonization of the New World (e.g., Jamestown).  Such colonies were an important social and religious safety valve. Dissatisfied citizens could become leaders in New World, and those who had no economic opportunity at home could have chance at even becoming wealthy in New World.  Likewise religious groups (Pilgrims, Puritans, Catholics) could go to new world instead of causing problems at home.

    James also tried to continue Elizabeth's latitudinarian policy in religion.  The KJV version of the Bible contributed greatly to Christian unity, and, whatever differences English speaking Chrisitans might have, for the next three centuries they at least shared a common Bible translation.  James had specifically asked his translators for a version of the Bible all could agree on, and the translators did this by relying on direct, literal translation from Greek and Hebrew rather than resorting to potentially controversial "interpretation" in place of translation.  No "dynamic equivalence" garbage for them!!!

    Also, because James was already King of Scotland, the potential for English/Scottish conflict seemed finished.   

    Unfortunately for James, the religious situation began to get out of hand despite his best efforts.  Adding to religious tension: the Gunpowder Plot of 1605.

    Some Catholics had thought James would attempt to reunite with Roman Catholic church.  When he didn't, some Catholic extremists were angry and wanted to kill James and the parliamentary leaders who might block a return to Catholicism. Llttle by little, they smuggled gunpowder into basement of Parliament, planning to blow it up.  The plot was discovered before it could come off, and Guy Fawkes (one of the conspirators) was caught red handed! The plotters were executed, but that wasn't the end of the story.  Because of the plot, many Englishmen began to really hate Catholics. "Guy Fawkes Day" became a national celebration ("Please to remember the 5th of November, gunpowder, treason, and plot.  I see no reason why gunpowder treason should ever be forgot).  


    Because Catholicism was now hated, James and his successors were under constant pressure to help the Protestant cause on the European continent (e.g., supporing the Protestants in the Thirty Years' War).  This was potentially very expensive, and, with already limited revenue, a real problem for English kings.


    Also a problem, anti-Catholic sentiment led to the growth of Puritanism, a movement wanting to "purify" the church of England by removing all things associated with Catholic tradition (e.g., Christmas!).


    The problems faced by James grew greater under his son and successor Charles I.

    IV.  Charles I (1625-1649)

    Charles was under constant pressure to help protestants in France and the Holy Roman Empire, but parliament wouldn't vote to provide the funds to support the wars they themselves insisted need to be fought.  Even worse, there were insufficient forces to properly prepare for what looked like an inevitable war with Spain. When Charles summoned parliament to ask for the authority to collect more tax revenue, parliament refused: they wanted first Charles agreement to what they called the Petition of Right, an agreement from the king that he would not resort to arbitrary arrests and imprisonments, arbitrary taxes, etc.).  These were good provisions in a way, but Charles, facing real trouble, didn't want his hands tied and refused to grant the petition.  

    Eventually, Charles in frustration decided to do without parliament, bringing about the period of his "personal rule," 1629-1640.  Parliament didn't meet for more than ten years, and Charles collected taxes without parliamentary authorization.  Illegal?  No: existing laws gave him some loopholes.  He could tax those not showing up to have title of nobility confirmed.  He could tax on those not going to church.  He could extend other taxes as well--and he could do without.  Charles was overall a pretty frugal monarch, making do with the limited resources at his disposal.  

    But Charles made a bad mistake.  Engcouraged by Biship Laud, Charles tried to unite the churches of England and Scotland by imposing theAnglican prayer book on the Scots.  The Scots were angry, and began a rebellion. Charles didn't have the resources to deal with problem, so, at long last, he called parliament into session again.

    The "Long Parliament," began in 1640--right where parliament had left of in 1629. Would parliament agree to increased tax revenue?  Not unless the king consented to the Petition of Right!  What can the King do?  Charles sends his most trusted minister (Wentworth) to parliament--and parliament indicts him, having Wentworth put on trial. It's obvious Wentworth isn't going to be convicted, so Parliament ends the trial, tries Wentworth itself--and orders him to be executed!  The King might have intervened, by Wentworth himself was willing to give up his life, telling Charles not to try to save him.  Wentworth probably thought his blood would appease the opponents of royal authority.  In this he was wrong: give sharks a taste of blood and they want more.

    Not only did Parliament order the execution of Wentworth,  members of parliament were encouraging and supporting the Scottish rebellion.  Well, enough is enough.  Charles ending up sending his soldiers in the parliament building itself with orders to arrest treasonous members of parliament.  This was a mistake: Charles angered the London mob by his actions, and touched of riots which drove him out of London.

    Once outside London, Charles made preparations for a come-back, gathering sufficient forces to reclaim London and re-establish his authority. Parliament  was in trouble, and needed an army of its own. They get one. The key figure here: Oliver Cromwell.  Cromwell put together from the ranks of his fellow Puritans. an army of Puritans, convinced they are fighting for kingdom of God against forces of darkness.  The well disciplined, highly motivated"New Model Army" eventually defeated Charles' forces.  Charles was captured and parliament was in control. But parliament  needed now a competent executive.  They turn to Cromwell, giving him the title Lord Protector.  

    Cromwell takes his job seriously, protecting England from:

    • Pariliament! Cromwell went to parliament with a request for money for his soldiers.  The parliamentary response: no way!!  Cromwell, the Lord Protector, had to keep England safe--so he kicked out any membe of parliament who wouldn't go along--eventually ruling without much help from parliament at all!

    • The King.  Cromwell had to end the possibility of a renewed attempt to put Charles in power and the conflict that would have come with that attempt.  How do you make sure no one will try to restore Charles to power?  The king must go: Charles is beheaded in 1649-- and England had been protected from it's King!

    • Subject peoples. Irish rebellion brutally put down.  England protected from Irish!

    • Themselves! Cromwell instituted a series of laws concerned with improving morality.  No gambling/ no bear or cock fighting/ adultery was severly penalized/ taverns closed/ oaths fined/ theaters closed.  Some of Cromwell's reforms were unquestionably good: no more capital punishment for minor crimes, debtors were freed from prison, corrupt and incompetent school and church officials were removed (the "scandalous, ignorant, and insufficient minister and schoolmasters." ). Cromwell was in many ways a far more absolute ruler than Charles had ever been--though not a king in the full sense.  And this in some ways a problem, because the absence of a king created a feeling that something was missing.  Cromwell died 1658, leaving much uncertainty as to what would happen next. Both the army and parliament eventually agreed that the best thing to do was to go back to Stuart monarchs, and Charles' son, Charles II, was asked to take the throne.

    V.  Charles II (1660-1685)

    Is some ways, it looked like Charles might have an easy time of it.  He was a very popuuar monarch. Most English were glad to have a king again, and glad the Puritans were not in control anymore.  After 18 years of Puritan austerity, it was party time in England, and the leading partier was Charles himself. He's sometimes called the "merrie monarch" --with good reason.  He certainly was no Puritan.  He carried on a very public affair with the actress Nell Gwynn, and it didn't seem to hurt his popularity at all.

    But the religious situation still wasn't stable.  Charles had to deal, first of all, with an anti-Puritan movement.  Parliament passes the Clarendon code that created lasting trouble for "non-comformists," those who won't go along with the Church of England and its liturgy.  They can't hold political office and suffer other losses of privilege. On the other hand, there is sill a lot of anti-Catholic sentiment as well.  A man named Titus Oates persuaded a lot of people that there had been a "Popish plot" to kill the king. Anti-Catholic hysteria led to at least 15 totally unjustifed executions.  Oates was a liar, and Charles knew it: but he couldn't protect the victims.  The interesting thing is that some anti-Catholics really did plot to kill the king, who had strong Catholic leanings himself.

    In any case, high religious tension made it harder to govern than it might have been, and was one of the reasons Charles and parliament had a major falling out.with pariament, and, from 1679-1685 he doesn't bother to call parliament into session.

    VI. James II (1685-1688)

    Charles's successor, his brother James, is another example of the problems English monarchs faced as a result of religion.  James himself had converted to Catholicism, something parliament found hard to take. Because his older daughters (Mary and Anne) were good protestants and because James was old, parliament tolerated having a Catholic king for the time being. Mary was married to one of leading protestant leaders on continent (William of Orange), and most were convinced that there would be a protestant leader in short order.  But then James fathered a son who, by English law, took precedence over his sisters. The son was going to raised Catholic, and this was too much for the anti-Catholics.  They had to get rid of James! But who would replace him?  Parliament asks Mary and her husband William to replace James.  This leads to...

    VII.  The Glorious Revolution (1688)

    Most revolutions are not glorious: they are bloody, unpleasant, and achieve little good.  This revolution really was glorious.  Why?

    1.  It was a revolution without bloodshed (except for James' bloody nose).

    2.  Almost by accident, the British had solved their political problems--king and parliament would work together.  France had solved its problems with an absolute monarchy: England now solves its problems with a limited monarchy--with kings recognizing the perogatives of parliament.  They also recognize the rights of people as a whole, agreeing to the Bill of Rights of 1689: document little known to most Americans, but the document that inspires our own Bill of Rights.

    See the  English Bill of Rights--1689.

    The Glorious Revolution meant that, in a certain sense, the English had solved their political problems.  There would be plenty of differences of opinion and plenty of conlicts, but now these problems would *always* be resolved the the pariamentary systerm, never through violence.  No more civil war, no more revolution--for more than three centuries now!  A pretty good solution I'd say.


    http://www3.northern.edu/marmorsa/delinednotes17thcentengland.htm



    Twelfth Night

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    This article is about Shakespeare's play. For other uses, see Twelfth Night (disambiguation).

    Malvolio courts a bemused Olivia, while Maria covers her amusement, in an engraving by R. Staines after a painting byDaniel Maclise.

    Twelfth Night, or What You Will[1] is a comedy by William Shakespeare, believed to have been written around 1601–02 as a Twelfth Night's entertainment for the close of the Christmas season. The play centres on the twins Viola and Sebastian, who are separated in a shipwreck. Viola (who is disguised as a boy) falls in love with Duke Orsino, who in turn is in love with the Countess Olivia. Upon meeting Viola, Countess Olivia falls in love with her thinking she is a man. The play expanded on the musical interludes and riotous disorder expected of the occasion,[2] with plot elements drawn from the short story "Of Apollonius and Silla" by Barnabe Rich, based on a story byMatteo Bandello. The first recorded performance was on 2 February 1602, at Candlemas, the formal end of Christmastidein the year's calendar. The play was not published until its inclusion in the 1623 First Folio.

    Contents

     [hide]

    Characters[edit]

    Scene from Twelfth Night, by Francis Wheatley (1771–72)

    • Viola - Sebastian's twin sister, a shipwrecked young lady, the heroine of the play, later disguised as a young man named Cesario.

    • Sebastian– Viola's twin brother, supposedly drowned in the shipwreck, but actually alive and visiting Illyria.

    • Duke Orsino– Duke of Illyria

    • Olivia– a wealthy countess

    • Malvolio– steward in the household of Olivia

    • Maria– Olivia's gentlewoman

    • Sir Toby Belch– Olivia's uncle

    • Sir Andrew Aguecheek– a rich man who Sir Toby brings to be Olivia's wooer

    • Feste– the clown, or jester, of Olivia's household

    • Fabian – a servant and friend to Sir Toby

    • Antonio – a captain and friend to Sebastian

    • Valentine and Curio – gentlemen attending on the Duke

    • A Servant of Olivia

    • Captain of the Wrecked Ship – friend to Viola

    Setting[edit]

    Illyria, the setting of Twelfth Night, is important to the play's romantic atmosphere. Illyria was an ancient region of the Western Balkans whose coast (the eastern coast of the Adriatic Sea which is the only part of ancient Illyria which is relevant to the play) covered (from north to south) the coasts of modern day Slovenia, Croatia, Montenegro and Albania. It included the city state of the Republic of Ragusa which has been proposed as the setting.[3] Illyria may have been suggested by the Roman comedy Menaechmi, the plot of which also involves twins who are mistaken for each other. Illyria is also referred to as a site of pirates in Shakespeare's earlier play, Henry VI, Part 2. The names of most of the characters are Italian but some of the comic characters have English names. Oddly the "Illyrian" lady Olivia has an English uncle, Sir Toby Belch. It has been noted that the play's setting also has other English allusions such as Viola's use of "Westward ho!", a typical cry of 16th-century London boatmen, and also Antonio's recommendation to Sebastian of "The Elephant" as where it is best to lodge in Illyria; The Elephant was a pub not far from the Globe Theatre.[4]

    Synopsis[edit]

    Viola is shipwrecked on the coast of Illyria and she comes ashore with the help of a captain. She loses contact with her twin brother, Sebastian, whom she believes to be dead. Disguising herself as a young man under the name Cesario, she enters the service of Duke Orsino through the help of the sea captain who rescues her. Duke Orsino has convinced himself that he is in love with Olivia, whose father and brother have recently died, and who refuses to see charming things, be in the company of man, and entertain love or marriage proposals from any one until seven years have passed, the Duke included. Duke Orsino then uses 'Cesario' as an intermediary to profess his passionate love before Olivia. Olivia however, forgetting about the seven years in his case, falls in love with 'Cesario', as she does not realise 'he' is Viola in disguise. In the meantime, Viola has fallen in love with the Duke Orsino, creating a love triangle between Duke Orsino, Olivia and Viola, being that Duke Orsino loves Olivia, Viola loves Duke Orsino, and Olivia loves Viola.

    A depiction of Olivia by Edmund Leighton from The Graphic Gallery of Shakespeare's Heroines

    In the comic subplot, several characters conspire to make Olivia's pompous steward, Malvolio, believe that Olivia has fallen for him. This involves Olivia's uncle, Sir Toby Belch; another would-be suitor, a silly squire named Sir Andrew Aguecheek; her servants Maria and Fabian; and her fool, Feste. Sir Toby and Sir Andrew engage themselves in drinking and revelry, thus disturbing the peace of Olivia's house until late into the night, prompting Malvolio to chastise them. Sir Toby famously retorts, "Dost thou think, because thou art virtuous, there shall be no more cakes and ale?" (Act II, Scene III) Sir Toby, Sir Andrew, and Maria are urged to plan revenge on Malvolio. They convince Malvolio that Olivia is secretly in love with him by planting a love letter, written by Maria in Olivia's hand. It asks Malvolio to wear yellow stockings cross-gartered, to be rude to the rest of the servants, and to smile constantly in the presence of Olivia. Malvolio finds the letter and reacts in surprised delight. He starts acting out the contents of the letter to show Olivia his positive response. Olivia is shocked by the changes in Malvolio and leaves him to the contrivances of his tormentors. Pretending that Malvolio is insane, they lock him up in a dark chamber. Feste visits him to mock his insanity, both disguised as a priest and as himself.

    Meanwhile, Sebastian (who had been rescued by a sea captain, Antonio) arrives on the scene, which adds confusion of mistaken identity. Mistaking Sebastian for 'Cesario', Olivia asks him to marry her, and they are secretly married in a church. Finally, when 'Cesario' and Sebastian appear in the presence of both Olivia and Orsino, there is more wonder and confusion at their similarity. At this point Viola reveals she is a female and that Sebastian is her twin brother. The play ends in a declaration of marriage between Duke Orsino and Viola, and it is learned that Sir Toby has married Maria. Malvolio swears revenge on his tormentors and stalks off, but Orsino sends Fabian to placate him.

    Sources[edit]

    The play is believed to have drawn extensively on the Italian production Gl'ingannati (or The Deceived Ones),[5] collectively written by the Accademia degli Intronati in 1531. It is conjectured that the name of its male lead, Orsino, was suggested byVirginio Orsini, Duke of Bracciano, an Italian nobleman who visited London in the winter of 1600 to 1601.[6]

    Sir Toby Belch coming to the assistance of Sir Andrew Aguecheek,Arthur Boyd Houghton, c. 1854.

    The actual Elizabethan festival of Twelfth Night would involve the antics of a Lord of Misrule, who before leaving his temporary position of authority, would call for entertainment, songs and mummery; the play has been regarded as preserving this festive and traditional atmosphere of licensed disorder.[7] This leads to the general inversion of the order of things, most notably gender roles.[8] The embittered and isolated Malvolio can be regarded as an adversary of festive enjoyment and community,[9] led by Sir Toby Belch, "the vice-regent spokesman for cakes and ale" and his partner in a comic stock duo, the simple and constantly exploited Sir Andrew Aguecheek.[10]

    Viola is not alone among Shakespeare's cross-dressing heroines; in Shakespeare's theatre, convention dictated that adolescent boys play the roles of female characters, creating humour in the multiplicity of disguise found in a female character who for a while pretended at masculinity.[11] Her cross dressing enables Viola to fulfill usually male roles, such as acting as a messenger between Orsino and Olivia, as well as being Orsino's confidant. She does not, however, use her disguise to enable her to intervene directly in the plot (unlike other Shakespearean heroines such as Rosalind in As You Like It and Portia in The Merchant of Venice), remaining someone who allows "Time" to untangle the plot.[12] Viola's persistence in transvestism through her betrothal in the final scene of the play often engenders a discussion of the possiblyhomoerotic relationship between Viola and Orsino. Her impassioned speech to Orsino, in which she describes an imaginary sister who "sat like patience on a monument, / Smiling at grief" for her love, likewise causes many critics to consider Viola's attitude of suffering in her love as a sign of the perceived weakness of the feminine (2.4).

    Metatheatre[edit]

    At Olivia's first meeting with "Cesario" (Viola) in I.V she asks her "Are you a comedian?" (an Elizabethan term for "actor").[13]Viola's reply, "I am not that I play", epitomising her adoption of the role of Cesario, is regarded as one of several references to theatricality and "playing" within the play.[14] The plot against Malvolio revolves around these ideas, and Fabian remarks in Act III, Scene iv: "If this were play'd upon a stage now, I could condemn it as an improbable fiction".[15] In Act IV, Scene ii, Feste (The Fool) plays both parts in the "play" for Malvolio's benefit, alternating between adopting the voice of the localcurate, Sir Topas, and his own voice. He finishes by likening himself to "the old Vice" of English Morality plays.[16] Other influences of the English folk tradition can be seen in Feste's songs and dialogue, such as his final song in Act V.[17] The last line of this song, "And we'll strive to please you every day", is a direct echo of similar lines from several English folk plays.[18]

    Date and text[edit]

    The title page of Twelfth Night from the 1623 First Folio

    The full title of the play is Twelfth Night, or What You Will. Subtitles for plays were fashionable in the Elizabethan era, and though some editors place The Merchant of Venice's alternative title, The Jew of Venice, as a subtitle, this is the only Shakespearean play to bear one when first published.[11]

    The play was probably finished between 1600 and 1601, a period suggested by the play's referencing of events which happened during that time. A law student, John Manningham, who was studying in the Middle Temple in London, described the performance on 2 February 1602 (Candlemas) which took place in the hall of the Middle Temple at the formal end of Christmastide in the year's calendar, and to which students were invited.[19] This was the first recorded performance of the play. The play was not published until its inclusion in the First Folio in 1623.

    "Twelfth Night" is a reference to the twelfth night after Christmas Day, called the Eve of the Feast of Epiphany. It was originally a Catholic holiday but, prior to Shakespeare's play, had become a day of revelry. Servants often dressed up as their masters, men as women and so forth. This history of festive ritual and Carnivalesque reversal, based on the ancient Roman festival of Saturnalia at the same time of year (characterized by drunken revelry and inversion of the social order; masters became slaves for a day, and vice versa), is the cultural origin of the play's gender confusion-driven plot. The source story, "Of Apolonius and Silla", appeared in Barnabe Riche's collection, Riche his Farewell to Militarie Profession conteining verie pleasaunt discourses fit for a peaceable tyme (1581), which in turn is derived from a story by Matteo Bandello.[20]

    Performance history[edit]

    During and just after Shakespeare's lifetime[edit]

    The earliest known performance took place at Middle Temple Hall, one of the Inns of Court, on Candlemas night, 2 February 1602. The only record of the performance is an entry in the diary of the lawyer John Manningham, who wrote:

    At our feast we had a play called "Twelve Night, or What You Will", much like "The Comedy of Errors" or "Menaechmi" in Plautus, but most like and near to that in Italian called "Inganni". A good practice in it to make the steward believe his lady-widow was in love with him, by counterfeiting a letter as from his lady, in general term telling him what she liked best in him and prescribing his gesture in smiling, his apparel, etc. and then, when he came to practice, making him believe they took him for mad.[21]

    Clearly, Manningham enjoyed the Malvolio story most of all, and noted the play's similarity with Shakespeare's earlier play, as well as its relationship with one of its sources, the Inganni plays.

    At this particular performance, Manningham also notes the interesting dimension that is added when a male actor plays a female character who disguises herself as a man. Some scholars attribute this to an innate Elizabethan structure that systematically deprived gender diversity of its nature and meaning.[22] Although male actors playing female roles were a natural feature of theatre productions during the Elizabethan era, they hold special significance in the production of this particular play. As the very nature of Twelfth Night explores gender identity and sexual attraction, having a male actor play Viola enhanced the impression of androgyny and sexual ambiguity.[23] Some modern scholars believe that Twelfth Night, with the added confusion of male actors and Viola's deception, addresses gender issues "with particular immediacy."[24]They also accept that the depiction of gender in Twelfth Night stems from the era's prevalent scientific theory that females are simply imperfect males.[23] This belief explains the almost indistinguishable differences between the sexes reflected in the casting and characters of Twelfth Night.

    It may have been performed earlier as well, before the Court at Whitehall Palace on Twelfth Night (6 January) of 1601.[25]Twelfth Night was also performed at Court on Easter Monday, 6 April 1618, and again at Candlemas in 1623.

    Restoration to 20th century[edit]

    A Scene from Twelfth Night by William Shakespeare: Act V, Scene i (William Hamilton, c. 1797).

    The play was also one of the earliest Shakespearean works acted at the start of theRestoration; Sir William Davenant's adaptation was staged in 1661, with Thomas Betterton in the role of Sir Toby Belch. Samuel Pepys thought it "a silly play", but saw it three times anyway during the period of his diary on 11 September 1661, 6 January 1663, and 20 January 1669. Another adaptation, Love Betray'd, or, The Agreeable Disappointment, was acted at Lincoln's Inn Fields in 1703.[6]

    After holding the stage only in the adaptations in the late 17th century and early 18th century, the original Shakespearean text of Twelfth Night was revived in 1741, in a production at Drury Lane. In 1820 an operatic version by Frederic Reynolds was staged, with music composed by Henry Bishop.

    20th and 21st century[edit]

    Influential productions were staged in 1912, by Harley Granville-Barker, and in 1916, at the Old Vic.

    Poster advertising performances ofTwelfth Night by Yale University Dramatic Association, New Haven, Connecticut, 1921

    Lilian Baylis reopened the long-dormant Sadler's Wells Theatre in 1931 with a notable production of the play starring Ralph Richardson as Sir Toby and John Gielgud as Malvolio. The Old Vic Theatre was reopened in 1950 (after suffering severe damage in the London Blitz in 1941) with a memorable production starring Peggy Ashcroft as Viola. Gielgud directed a production at theShakespeare Memorial Theatre with Laurence Olivier as Malvolio and Vivien Leigh playing both Viola and Sebastian in 1955. The longest running Broadwayproduction by far was Margaret Webster's 1940 staging starring Maurice Evansas Malvolio and Helen Hayes as Viola. It ran for 129 performances, more than twice as long as any other Broadway production.

    A memorable production directed by Liviu Ciulei at the Guthrie Theater in Minneapolis, October–November 1984, was set in the context of an archetypal circus world, emphasising its convivial, carnival tone.[26]

    When the play was first performed, all female parts were played by men or boys, but it has been the practice for some centuries now to cast women or girls in the female parts in all plays. The company of Shakespeare's Globe, London, has produced many notable, highly popular all-male performances, and a highlight of their 2002 season was Twelfth Night, with the Globe's artistic director Mark Rylance playing the part of Olivia. This season was preceded, in February, by a performance of the play by the same company at Middle Temple Hall, to celebrate the 400th anniversary of the play's première, at the same venue. The same production was revived in 2012-13 and transferred to sell-out runs in theWest End and Broadway. Stephen Fry played Malvolio. It ran in repertory with Richard III.

    Interpretations of the role of Viola have been given by many well-renowned actresses in the latter half of the 20th century, and have been interpreted in the light of how far they allow the audience to experience the transgressions of stereotypical gender roles.[27] This has sometimes correlated with how far productions of the play go towards reaffirming a sense of unification, for example a 1947 production concentrated on showing a post-World War II community reuniting at the end of the play, led by a robust hero/heroine in Viola, played by Beatrix Lehmann, then 44 years old.[28] The 1966 Royal Shakespeare Company production played on gender transgressions more obviously, with Diana Rigg as Viola showing much more physical attraction towards the duke than previously seen, and the court in general being a more physically demonstrative place, particularly between males.[29]John Barton's 1969 production starred Donald Sinden as Malvolio andJudi Dench as Viola; their performances were highly acclaimed and the production as a whole was commented on as showing a dying society crumbling into decay.[30]

    Malvolio is a popular character choice among stage actors; others who have taken the part include Ian Holm many times,Simon Russell Beale (Donmar Warehouse, 2002), Richard Cordery in 2005, Patrick Stewart, in Chichester, in 2007, Derek Jacobi (Donmar Warehouse) in 2009, Richard Wilson in 2009[31] and Stephen Fry at the Globe in 2012.[32]

    Adaptations[edit]

    Stage[edit]

    Due to its themes such as young women seeking independence in a "man's world", "gender-bending" and "same-sex attraction" (albeit in a roundabout way),[33] there have been a number of re-workings for the stage, particularly in musical theatre, among them Your Own Thing (1968), Music Is (1977), All Shook Up (2005), and Play On! (1997), the last twojukebox musicals featuring the music of Elvis Presley and Duke Ellington, respectively. Another adaptation is Illyria, by composer Pete Mills. Theatre Grottesco created a modern version of the play from the point of view of the servants working for Duke Orsino and Lady Olivia. The adaptation takes a much deeper look at the issues of classism, and society without leadership. In 1999, the play was adapted as Epiphany by the Takarazuka Revue, adding more overt commentary on the role of theatre and actors, as well as gender as applied to the stage (made more layered by the fact that all roles in this production were played by women).[34]

    Film[edit]

    See also: Shakespeare on screen § Twelfth Night

    In 1910, Vitagraph Studios released the silent, short adaptation Twelfth Night starring actors Florence Turner, Julia Swayne Gordon and Marin Sais.

    There was a 1986 Australian film.

    The 1996 film adapted and directed by Trevor Nunn and set in the 19th century, stars Imogen Stubbs as Viola, Helena Bonham Carter as Olivia and Toby Stephens as Duke Orsino. The film also features Mel Smith as Sir Toby, Richard E. Grant as Sir Andrew, Ben Kingsley as Feste, Imelda Staunton as Maria and Nigel Hawthorne as Malvolio. Much of the comic material was downplayed into straightforward drama, and the film received some criticism for this.[35]

    The 2001 "Disney Channel Original Movie" "Motocrossed" sets the story in the world of motocross racing.

    In the 2004 movie Wicker Park, Rose Byrne's character Alex plays Viola in an amateur production of Twelfth Night.

    The 2006 film She's the Man modernises the story as a contemporary teenage comedy (as 10 Things I Hate About You did with The Taming of the Shrew). It is set in a prep school named Illyria and incorporates the names of the play's major characters. For example, Orsino, Duke of Illyria becomes simply Duke Orsino ("Duke" being his forename). The story was changed to revolve around the idea of soccer rivalry but the twisted character romance remained the same as the original.Viola, the main character, pretends to be her brother Sebastian, and a girl named Olivia falls in love with Viola as Sebastian. She also goes to restaurant named "Cesario's". Two of Duke's Illyria soccer teammates are named Andrew and Toby. A nod is given to the omitted subplot by naming a briefly-onscreen tarantula Malvolio. Several characters, Monique and Malcolm, do not seem to stem from any Shakespearean inspiration.

    Shakespeare in Love contains several references to Twelfth Night. Near the end of the movie, Elizabeth I (Judi Dench) asks Shakespeare (Joseph Fiennes) to write a comedy for the Twelfth Night holiday. Shakespeare's love interest in the film, "Viola" (Gwyneth Paltrow), is the daughter of a wealthy merchant who disguises herself as a boy to become an actor; while Shakespeare, a financially struggling playwright suffering from writer's block is trying to write Romeo and Juliet. She is presented in the final scene of the film as William Shakespeare's "true" inspiration for the heroine of Twelfth Night. In a nod to the shipwrecked opening of Shakespeare's Twelfth Night, the movie includes a scene where the character Viola, separated from her love by an arranged marriage and bound for the American colonies, survives a shipwreck and comes ashore to Virginia.

    The play was referenced in the movie V For Vendetta. The character V quotes: "Conceal me what I am, and be my aid... for such disguise as haply shall become the form of my intent" as he's dancing with Evey.

    Television[edit]

    On 14 May 1937, the BBC Television Service in London broadcast a thirty-minute excerpt of the play, the first known instance of a work of Shakespeare being performed on television. Produced for the new medium by George More O'Ferrall, the production is also notable for having featured a young actress who would later go on to win an Academy AwardGreer Garson. As the performance was transmitted live from the BBC's studios at Alexandra Palace and the technology to record television programmes did not at the time exist, no visual record survives other than still photographs.[36]

    The entire play was produced for television in 1939, directed by Michel Saint-Denis and starring another future Oscar-winner, Peggy Ashcroft. The part of Sir Toby Belch was taken by a young George Devine.

    In 1957, another adaptation of the play was presented by NBC on U.S. television's Hallmark Hall of Fame, with Maurice Evans recreating his performance as Malvolio. This was the first color version ever produced on TV. Dennis King, Rosemary Harris, and Frances Hyland co-starred.

    In 1966 there was an Australian TV version.

    Another version for UK television was produced in 1969, directed by John Sichel and John Dexter. The production featuredJoan Plowright as Viola and Sebastian, Alec Guinness as Malvolio, Ralph Richardson as Sir Toby Belch and Tommy Steeleas an unusually prominent Feste.

    Yet another TV adaptation followed in 1980. This version was part of the BBC Television Shakespeare series and featuredFelicity Kendal in the role of Viola, Sinéad Cusack as Olivia, Alec McCowen as Malvolio and Robert Hardy as Sir Toby Belch.

    In 1988, Kenneth Branagh's stage production of the play, starring Frances Barber as Viola and Richard Briers as Malvolio,was adapted for Thames Television.

    In 1998 the Lincoln Center Theater production directed by Nicholas Hytner was broadcast on PBS Live From Lincoln Center. It starred Helen Hunt as Viola, Paul Rudd as Orsino, Kyra Sedgwick as Olivia, Philip Bosco as Malvolio, Brian Murray as Sir Toby, Max Wright as Sir Andrew, and David Patrick Kelly as Feste.

    A 2003 telemovie adapted and directed by Tim Supple is set in the present day. It features David Troughton as Sir Toby, and is notable for its multi-ethnic cast including Parminder Nagra as Viola and Chiwetel Ejiofor as Orsino. Its portrayal of Viola and Sebastian's arrival in Illyria is reminiscent of news footage of asylum seekers.

    An episode of the British series Skins, entitled Grace, featured the main characters playing Twelfth Night, with a love triangle between Franky, Liv and Matty, who respectively played Viola, Olivia and Orsino.

    Radio[edit]

    In 1937 an adaptation was performed on the CBS Radio Playhouse starring Orson Welles as Orsino and Tallulah Bankhead as Viola. A year later, Welles played Malvolio in a production with his Mercury Theater Company.

    There have been several full adaptations on BBC Radio. A 1982 BBC Radio 4 broadcast featured Alec McCowen as Orsino, Wendy Murray as Viola, Norman Rodway as Sir Toby Belch, Andrew Sachs as Sir Andrew Aguecheek, and Bernard Heptonas Malvolio; in 1993, BBC Radio 3 broadcast a version of the play (set on a Caribbean Island), with Michael Maloney as Orsino, Eve Matheson as Viola, Iain Cuthbertson as Malvolio, and Joss Ackland as Sir Toby Belch; this adaptation was broadcast again on 6 January 2011 by BBC Radio 7 (now Radio 4 Extra). 1998 saw another Radio 3 adaptation, with Michael Maloney, again as Orsino, Josette Simon as Olivia and Nicky Henson as Feste. In April 2012, BBC Radio 3 broadcast a version directed by Sally Avens, with Paul Ready as Orsino, Naomi Frederick as Viola, David Tennant as Malvolvio and Ron Cook as Sir Toby Belch.

    Music[edit]

    In 1942, Gerald Finzi set the songs "O Mistress Mine" (Act II, Scene 3) and "Come Away, Come Away, Death" (Act II, Scene 4) to music as part of his song cycle on Shakespearean texts Let Us Garlands Bring.

    Influence[edit]

    The Danish philosopher Søren Kierkegaard opens his book Philosophical Fragments with the quote "Better well hanged than ill wed" which is a paraphrase of Feste's comment to Maria in Act 1, Scene 5: "Many a good hanging prevents a bad marriage". Nietzsche also refers passingly to Twelfth Night (specifically, to Sir Andrew Aguecheek's suspicion, expressed in Act 1, Scene 3, that his excessive intake of beef is having an inverse effect on his wit) in the third essay of his Genealogy of Morality.

    The Kiddy Grade characters Viola and Cesario are named for Viola and her alter ego Cesario, respectively.

    Elizabeth Hand's novella Illyria features a high school production of Twelfth Night, containing many references to the play, especially Feste's song.

    One of Club Penguin's plays, Twelfth Fish, is a spoof of Shakespeare's works. It is a story about a countess, a jester, and a bard who catch a fish that talks. As the play ends, they begin eating the fish. Many of the lines are parodies of Shakespeare.

    Agatha Christie's 1940 mystery novel Sad Cypress draws its title from a song in Act II, Scene IV of Twelfth Night.

    American Playwright Ken Ludwig wrote a play inspired by the details of Twelfth Night; called Leading Ladies.

    Cassandra Clare's 2009 novel City of Glass contains chapter names inspired by quotations of Antonio and Sebastian.

    Two of the dogs in the film Hotel for Dogs are twins called Sebastian and Viola.

    Clive Barker's short story "Sex, Death and Starshine" revolves around a doomed production of Twelfth Night.

    Notes[edit]

    • Jump up^ Use of spelling, capitalization, and punctuation in the First Folio:"Twelfe Night, Or what you will"

    • Jump up^"Shakespeare, having tackled the theatrical problems of providing Twelfth Night with effective musical interludes, found his attitude toward his material changed. An episodic story became in his mind a thing of dreams and themes." Thomson, Peter. Shakespeare's Theater. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1983, p. 94. ISBN 0-710-09480-9.

    • Jump up^ Torbarina, J. "The Setting of Shakespeare's Plays."Studia Romanica et Anglica Zagrabiensia, 17–18 (1964).

    • Jump up^ Donno, Elizabeth Story, editor. Twelfth Night, or, What You Will. Updated ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003, p. 7.

    • Jump up^ Caldecott, Henry Stratford (1896). Our English Homer, or, The Bacon-Shakespeare Controversy: A Lecture. Johannesburg: Johannesburg Times. p. 9.OCLC83492745.

    • ^ Jump up to:ab Halliday, F. E. (1964). A Shakespeare Companion 1564–1964 (First ed.). Harmondsworth: Penguin. pp. 71, 505.